Service coproductions as reciprocal activities

In addition to extrinsic economic exchange, #JohnMCarroll #JiaweiChen #ChienWenTinaYuan #BenjaminHanrahan @ISTatPENNSTATE say service coproductions relying on all participants to collaborate in both economic exchange and social exchange.

Service coproduction is a special case of service provision in which the roles of service provider and service recipient both require active participation. Examples include healthcare, education, and music instruction. Service coproduction raises particular challenges for user interface design. Because the recipient plays an active role, interaction protocols cannot be fully specified at design time and it is difficult to clearly define what the provider is providing and what value to attach to the provider’s contribution.

A coproduced service is a reciprocal collaboration, and it is both an economic exchange and a social exchange. [1] [Carroll, Chen, Yuan, Hanrahan 2016, p. 27, editorial paragraphing added] [….]

  • [1] J.M. Carroll and V. Bellotti, “Creating Value Together: The Emerging Design Space of Peer-to-Peer Currency and Exchange,” Proc. 18th ACM Conf. Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing (CSCW 15), 2015, pp. 1500–1510.

A more radical example of service coproduction is timebanking, in which personal services are exchanged and valued according to the time to produce them. [2] In timebanking, no money is exchanged; services are valued by the doing itself. Moreover, because these exchanges occur in a local (face-to-face) community context, an exchange’s value includes personal recognition of a neighbor’s effort and reciprocal recognition of the value inherent in helping a neighbor. Timebanking service exchanges are, by design, not simple and succinct pay-and-receive services, like music streaming. Indeed, participants can spend earned time credit only on arranging further cooperation with neighbors. [1] [Carroll, Chen, Yuan, Hanrahan 2016, p. 27] [….]

Services are often construed as an exchange between a provider and a recipient in the form of material or money. The provider delivers a service to the recipient; for example, a taxi driver transports passengers, or a media company streams content to a subscriber. In return, the recipient pays the service provider. [….] However, some services are not as straightforward as that. For example, an educator cannot “deliver” knowledge and skill to a student; if the student does not react (through, say, practice and reflection), learning does not happen. Many services or activities pertaining to health and learning are, in this sense, coproduced social exchanges. The provider and recipient actively cooperate to produce social values that both parties share. [Carroll, Chen, Yuan, Hanrahan 2016, p. 27] [….]

In other words, the shared, interdependent aspect of the production process is key in successful coproduction activities. This means that service coproductions can be improved and customized by leveraging the expertise of both providers and recipients, enabling increased diversity and choices. Recipients can be more responsive to the services provided, and costs can decrease. [5] [Carroll, Chen, Yuan, Hanrahan 2016, p. 28]

  • [5] T. Brandsen and V. Pestoff, “Coproduction, the Third Sector and the Delivery of Public Services: An Introduction,” Public Management Rev., vol. 8, no. 4, 2006, pp. 493–501.

The article makes the ideas concrete with a research smartphone app WithShare (on iOS).

FIGURE 1. Screenshots of our timebanking smartphone app (names anonymized).
(a) The task list view (offer). (b) The add-task view (request). (c) The task details view (offer).
(d) The user profile view. Users can set up service exchanges; in Figures 1b and 1c, a
mother home alone with a sick child is requesting someone to obtain medicine for her.


Carroll, J. M., J. Chen, C. W. Yuan, and B. V. Hanrahan. 2016. “In Search of Coproduction: Smart Services as Reciprocal Activities.” IEEE Computer, July 2016, pp. 26-32. , cached at


#service-science, #service-systems

Science and Society in East and West | Joseph Needham | 2004

In appreciating change, a useful translation of wéi and wú wéi (i.e. 為 and 無為 in traditional characters; 为 and 无为 in simplified characters) is the ways of “willful action” and “natural order” as juxtaposed. This sense goes beyond a dictionary definition of 為 and 無, into the context of science and philosophy in Chinese and western contexts, in the writings of Joseph Needham.

It seems clear, at any rate, that the early superiority of Chinese science and technology through long centuries must be placed in relation to the elaborate, rationalised and conscious mechanisms of a society having the character of ‘Asiatic bureaucracy’. It was a society which functioned fundamentally in a ‘learned’ way, the seats of power being filled by scholars, not military commanders.

Central authority relied a great deal upon the ‘automatic’ functioning of the village communities, and in general tended to reduce to the minimum its intervention in their life.

I have already written (above, pp. 1-2) of the fundamental difference between peasant-farmers on the one hand and shepherds or seamen on the other.

This difference is expressed epigrammatically in the Chinese terms wei 為 and wu wei 無為.

Wei meant application of the force of will-power, the determination that things, animals, or even other men, should do what they were ordered to do, but wu wei was the opposite of this, leaving things alone, letting Nature take her course, profiting by going with the grain of things instead of going against it, and knowing how not to interfere. [53]

  • [53] I remember during the war I had a friend in the Foreign Office in London who had a huge Chinese scroll beside his desk, with these two characters alone on it, and later when later on I became Master of Caius , I found that it was essentially a practical dictum; things worked better if you left the College Lecturers, the Dean and Chaplain and the Kitchen Office to get on with it without any interference from above.

Wu wei was the great Taoist watchword throughout the ages, the untaught doctrine, the wordless edict. [54] It was summarised in that numinous group of phrases which Bertrand Russell collected from his time in China, ‘production without possession, action without self-assertion, development without domination. [55]

  • [54] See SCC, vol 2, p. 564.
  • [5S] SCC, vol. 2, p. 164: from Bertrand Russell, The Problem of China (1922), p. 194.

Now wu wei, the lack of interference, might very well be applied to a respect for the ‘automotive’ capacity of the individual farmers and their peasant communities. Even when the old ‘Asiatic’ society had given place to ‘bureaucratic feudalism’ such conceptions remained very much alive in Chinese political practice and government administration that had been inherited from ancient Asian society and from the single pair of opposites, ‘villages-princes’.

Thus, all through Chinese history, the best magistrate was he who intervened least in society’s affairs, and all through history, too, the chief aim of clans and families was to settle their affairs internally without having recourse to the courts. [56]

[p. 16, editorial paragraphing added]
  • [56] An aspect of the darker side of this is given in the partly autobiographical account of my old friend Kuo Yu-Shou (1963).

It seems probable that a society like this would be favourable to reflection upon the world of Nature. Man should try to penetrate as far as possible into the mechanisms of the natural world and to utilise the sources of power which it contained while intervening directly as little as possible, and utilising ‘action at a distance’.

[pp. 16-17, editorial paragraphing added]

Conceptions of this kind, highly intelligent, sought always to achieve effects with an economy of means, [57] and naturally encouraged the investigation of Nature for essentially Baconian reasons. Hence such early triumphs as those of the seismograph, the casting of iron, and water-power. [58]

  • [57] One can see what this implies by imagining a city on the side of a hill above a river, where water was needed for the upper streets. The Confucians would have had squads of men pedalling square-pallet chain-pumps to send up the water from the river; but the Taoist way would have been quite different. They would have taken off a derivate canal from the river at a higher level and by guiding it along the contours, they would have reached the upper streets of the city on a wu wei principle.
  • [58] One might add the magnetic compass, deep borehole drilling, and the escapement of clockwork, and many other inventions listed below.

It might thus be said that this non-interventionist conception of human activity was, to begin with, propitious for the development of the natural sciences. For example, the predilection for ‘action at a distance’ had great effects in early wave-theory, the discovery of the nature of the tides, the knowledge of relations between mineral bodies and plants as in geo-botanical prospecting, or again in the science of magnetism

It is often forgotten that one of the fundamental features of the great breakthrough of modern science in the time of Galileo was the knowledge of magnetic polarity, declination, etc.; and unlike Euclidean geometry and Ptolemaic astronomy, magnetical science was a totally non-European contribution. [59] Nothing had been known of it to speak of in Europe before the end of the 12th century, and its transmission from the earlier work of the Chinese is not in doubt. If the Chinese were (apart from the Babylonians) the greatest observers among all ancient peoples, was it not perhaps precisely because of the encouragement of non-interventionist principles, enshrined in the numinous poetry of the Taoists on the ‘water symbol’ and the ‘eternal feminine? [60]

  • [59] See Needham (1960a).
  • [60] Cf. SCC vol. 2, p. 57.

However if the non-interventionist character of the ‘villages-prince’ relationship engendered a certain conception of the world which was propitious to the progress of science, it had certain natural limitations. It was not congruent with characteristi­cally occidental ‘interventionism’, so natural to a people of shepherds and sea-farers. Since it was not capable of allowing the mercantile mentality a leading place in the civilisation, it was not capable of fusing together the techniques of the higher artisanate with the methods of mathematical and logical reasoning which the scholars had worked out, so that the passage from the Vincian to the Galilean stage in the development of modern natural science was not achieved, perhaps not possible.

[p. 17]

In medieval China there had been more systematic experimentation than the Greeks had ever attempted, or medieval Europe either; [61] but so long as ‘bureaucratic feu­dalism’ remained unchanged, mathematics could not come together with empirical Nature-observation and experiment to produce something fundamentally new. The suggestion is that experiment demanded too much active intervention, and while this had always been accepted in the arts and traqes, indeed more so than in Europe, it was perhaps more difficult in China to make it philosophically respectable.

[pp. 17-18]
  • [61] Nathan Rosenberg has suggested to us that a new attitude almost of deference to experimental results arose in Europe from the 16th century onwards, with the dominance of the bourgeoisie. which was not paralleled elsewhere. This attitude is very similar to that of merchants interested in quantitative accounting. See Rosenberg & Birdzell (1986).

There was another way, also, in which medieval Chinese society had been highly favourable to the growth of the natural sciences at the pre-Renaissance level. Traditional Chinese society was highly organic, highly cohesive.

The State was responsible for the good functioning of the entire society, even if this responsibility was carried out with the minimum intervention. One remembers that the ancient definition of the Ideal Ruler was that he should sit simply facing the south and exert his virtue (i.e. 德) in all directions so that the Ten Thousand Things would automatically be well governed. As we have been able to show over and over again, the State brought powerful aid to scientific research. [62] Astronomical observatories, for example, keeping millennial records, were part of the civil service; vast encyclopaedias, not only literary but also medical and agricultural, were published at the expense of the State, and scientific expeditions altogether remarkable for their time were successfully accomplished (one thinks of the early +8th-century geodetic survey of a meridian arc stretching from Indo-China to Mongolia, and of the southern hemisphere to within twenty degrees of the south celestial pole). [63]

  • [62] SCC, vols 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 passim.
  • [63] See Beer, Ho Ping-Yü, Lu Gwei-Djen, Needham, Pulleyblank & Thompson, ‘An Eighth-Century Meridian Line; I-Hsing’s Chain of Gnomons and the Pre-History of the Metric System’ (1964).

The writing by Joseph Needham is in the book General Conclusions and Reflections. The section (a) Science and Society in East and West has a sourcing footnote.

  • [1] First published in the J. D. Bernal Presentation Volume (London, 1964), and then in Science and Society (1964) 28, 385, and Centaurus (1964), 10, 174; collected in The Grand Titration (Allen & Unwin, London, I969), and further revised for publication here.


Needham, Joseph. 2004. “General Conclusions and Reflections.” In The Social Background, edited by Kenneth Girdwood Robinson. Vol. VII:2. Science and Civilisation in China. Cambridge University Press. Online archive at

Needham, Joseph. 2004. “General Conclusions and Reflections.” In The Social Background, edited by Kenneth Girdwood Robinson. Vol. VII:2. Science and Civilisation in China. Cambridge University Press.

#chinese, #%e7%82%ba, #%e7%84%a1%e7%82%ba, #science, #wei, #wu-wei, #%e6%97%a0%e4%b8%ba, #%e4%b8%ba

Wiki as computational platform

Thinking forward on #federatedwiki, rather than backwards by @wardcunningham.

[Federated wiki] is a computational platform for the collaborative construction of things that work and will continue to work as platform technology evolves underneath it.

Too much thinking about wiki as a note-taking system will just hold it back.

This response was in reference to a discussion on front-end work (for pattern language), with a recent relabelling of “wiki pages” as “cards”, in a direction to make federated wiki more understandable to novices. [ on Jan. 12, 2019, around 13:02 ET]

Over the past week, the “things that work” for Ward included an ESP8266 Sensor Server, reporting real-time changes in temperature.

#federated-wiki, #wiki

2018/10/27 16:55 Panel, “The Future of Patterns”, PUARL Conference

Plenary panel with @HajoNeis #SusanIngham #YodanRode #RichardSickinger at @PUARLuo 2018 Conference.

This digest was created in real-time during the meeting, based on the speaker’s presentation(s) and comments from the audience. The content should not be viewed as an official transcript of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. The digest has been made available for purposes of scholarship, posted by David Ing.

Commentary by the panel, expanded out to other conference attendees

PUARL 2018
Panel, PUARL 10th Anniversary Conference

[Moderator:  Wolfgang Stark]

Yesterday, started with World Cafe

  • Today, panel on the future of patterns, once we realize the potential of patterns not just in the book

Panel: Hajo Neis (chair)

  • Susan Ingham
  • Yodan Rode
  • Richard Sickinger

Youtube:  Steven Johnson, Where Good Ideas Come From | Riverhead Books | 2011 at

Developing hunches, some not-ready ideas

What do you take away from today?

Susan: Architect’s perspective, what is the actual physical environment?

  • In what environment do I have my best ideas, where am I most creative?
  • I spent most of time in a place where it’s not good for me to have my best ideas.
  • For best ideas, usually need a hot beverage, or a view of nature.
  • Challenge people to notice when they have a moment of creativity, track that.
  • We’re disconnected from where we are, in the moment.

Yodan:  Pattern language group is small core, around Purplsoc and PUARL

  • On one hand, it’s a problem, a little bit of inbreeding
  • Important, level of discussion could be higher, not just of pattern language
  • Perhaps we could change venues, we pick up more people while maintaining the strong core
  • Doubts about travelling a long way, already know some of the people, but conversations raised good questions, lighting up the bulb
  • Can do in 5 minutes of conversations, what would take days online, so annual conferences are important
  • Need to develop more institutions within the pattern language movement, maybe a journal, maybe an exhibition, that will increase the number of practitioners

Richard:  Importance of reaching the end users of the pattern languages, that are effected, that helps them

  • Finding a pattern ideal that fascinates, inspires

Hajo:  This year is the 10-year anniversary conference

  • Wouldn’t have started a conference at CES, because clients wouldn’t talk about the work
  • As academics, something can come out
  • The future is pattern language, but then there’s the advanced pattern language that takes in the Nature of Order
  • Interdisciplinary work, connects
  • Huge range of possibilities
  • Could be relevant in regenerative process and design:  world has a lot of problems that we can’t comprehend
  • Some hope, maybe we can come together and solve a huge problem, tackled through pattern languages

The way we use the pattern languages in architecture

  • Can appreciate how important they are
  • We have developed enough projects, and tried to create with participation of users
  • Beyond these, pattern languages relate with centers and create space
  • Many next steps, book was written and developed in the 1970s, patterns may not be implemented
  • How to future develop, put in new contexts

Yodan:  Origins of patterns has strong connections with social change, people’s republic of Berkeley

  • Houses generated by patterns was in the context of U.N. Competition on Social Housing in South America
  • Process of coming up with patterns, some work with clients, is social-changing
  • It’s a different way of doing social science, on the other hand
  • Tying social science to planning and building
  • Sometimes ourselves, we’re not so aware of how we should do this work carefully.
  • Not careful about the statements, they’re not good patterns
  • It’s hard to create a good pattern, as hard as creating an experiment

Did political change, came up with solutions, the big challenge

  • It may not work

[Wolfgang] Reading Alexandrian writings, would like to see a good social science

[Hajo] Adventures into other disciplines, dealing with tsunami problems and energy problems, not used to doing that

  • Fascinating, doing something that is expanding horizon
  • Feel sometimes loosing the base, doing what we should do
  • Not doing projects in architecture that I used to
  • Two faces, Janus head
  • Asian project language was a fantastic experience, with 100 people, successful
  • Missing that

Richard:  Need patterns that serve people, that moves people, or want to live this pattern

  • Patterns in human action
  • We should start living patterns

Pattern depends on context

  • Problem is generated with context, what’s around
  • How to live with one pattern, don’t understand that

Richard:  One topic, moving the world

  • For immigrants, could be open to different people
  • Have selected that context as the most relevant

Wolfgang:  Not just one pattern, for a language, take a few patterns

  • Not whole language, it’s too big

[Gary]: Diversity that of individuals that have embraced patterns, with wicked problems in their fields

  • Life takes place, as Alexander’s genius, talking about the unity of life and place
  • Used to urban design, then urban planning, has little to do with the physical world, dealing with abstractions
  • If held to the notion that we have to ask about how places would be shaped
  • Pattern language for NASA site, sustainable agriculture, halfway-house to real world
  • Developed a pattern language, interviewed staff there, developing meta-patterns (place as community, integrative places)
  • They were stated much more as social patterns, then could say physical changes, would have to go back to see how a pattern would support a meta-pattern as a vision
  • More grounded
  • Weren’t talking about architecture and meta-patterns
  • Vision of education, etc., went further
  • Tried to rejoin social patterns to the physical
  • Challenge groups, those from social and entrepreneurial:  what does this have to do with place?
  • Could have meta-patterns for places.
  • One step more:  could architect planners, physical designers, how does it support more egalitarian society?
  • If we follow the genius of Alexander’s work, then what kind of places does this create?  Particular places that manifest the whole
  • Keep the multidisciplinary

[Wolfgang]:  Need to educate, train each other, in different disciplines

  • If take a serious pattern approach, would need some help, or information, some more ideas
  • How to make sure the tradition maintains, and goes to the next step
  • Besides place, there is time

[Gary] That’s in David Seamon’s work, place as process

[Eric] Video that mentioned story

  • Poem, the Speed of Darkness:  the universe is made of stories, not atoms
  • We’re good at talking to each other
  • We need to become better at telling our stories
  • Where is our Leonard Bernstein, or Richard Feinman — the engaging storyteller who has a deep wealth of knowledge, but can communicate the profoundness and love of the pattern

[Gary]: Maybe it’s not just one person

  • Need to be able to communicate, in better ways with audience who aren’t in-house
  • Need to listen to clients, then can find the patterns
  • Can frame those stories to physical design and placemaking
  • Place makes a difference, if you hire the right architects

[Takashi] Often participate in pattern-related conferences

  • Many people struggle in professional towards social change
  • People who engage in pattern language are in some change
  • This conference is wider:  pattern language for behaviour change is microscopic
  • Talked with Richard Gabriel about regional A Pattern Language
  • Jenny said originally with U.S. government, well-being of society

[Gary Black] First PUARL conference

  • In the architecture department at Berkeley, Chris Alexander isn’t mentioned
  • Studios:  whatever the student comes up with is okay, teacher is supposed to comment on a tweak
  • No rigour
  • At PUARL, patting self on back, in future, collaboration is awesome, but somethings need need someone to come into office with dissention
  • Like preparing a brief, someone feels free to question if a pattern language is even applicable
  • Would be good to include in new conferences
  • Getting people who distrust can advance the cause

[Wolfgang] What is the next step for the future of pattern language, in one sentence?

[Yodan] Trying to find a communal project — we’re not that many people

  • Proposed a project to rewrite the A Pattern Language for the 21st century

[Hajo] Need to look to next generation, teach them a way to continuing in a better way than we did.

  • Our generation screwed up the world
  • Have the chance to make it over again

[Gary Coates] Whatever exists is possible

  • Need more projects rooted in a pattern-language based approach, that also integrates the encompassing wisdom in the Nature of Order, then communicate
  • Have to create better and more beautiful places

Richard:  Need a pattern language story

  • Challenge, response
  • Old patterns are losing validity

[Gary Black] Group should find projects where you can bring the theory to bear, see it to the end, and show that it’s better

[Susan] Embedding patterns, archives is one way, making connections with the larger body of research

  • Brain research

[Eric] Future of patterns is in the youngest people in the room

  • If there is to be a future, youngest students should have a voice in determining the conference

The future is the young people, and the future is the buildings

  • Need patterns adopted and used by the younger people

[Takashi] Want to incorporate pattern language thinking in education, in elementary and middle school levels

  • Includes listening to others, and then writing down for others
  • Common language
  • Dialogue
  • Building better futures
  • Need more teachers in the school

Pick a voice for someone under 30

From this conference, felt that we need to not confine ourselves to the established definitions and formats

  • Clinging onto the definitions doesn’t allow us to explore more possibilities
  • Looking at newer contexts

#pattern-language, #puarl2018

2018/10/27 10:50 Helene Finidori, “Configuring patterns and pattern languages for systemic design”, PUARL Conference

Parallel breakout by @helenefinidori@PUARLuo 2018 Conference.

This digest was created in real-time during the meeting, based on the speaker’s presentation(s) and comments from the audience. The content should not be viewed as an official transcript of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. The digest has been made available for purposes of scholarship, posted on the Coevolving Innovations web site by David Ing.

Helene Finidori is a Ph.D Candidate, University of Hull Centre for Systems Studies

PUARL 2018

More questions

  • What do I mean by systemic?

At Purplsoc 2017, had questions at various scales

For PUARL scale, we’re at a great scale with Migrants and Refugees

What does systemic design look like, for wicked problems?

  • Different in nature:  social, environmental, psychological, technological
  • No right solutions
  • As soon as action is taken, context changes

Trying to take a systemic approach to pattern languages, focuses on forces

Beyond pattern catalog, could we create a pattern catalog?

  • Learning to see things
  • Awareness
  • Working with systems literacy at International Society for the Systems Sciences
  • We have a patterning instinct, how can we enhance these competences for recognizing, assembling patters

In 2015, proposed the notion of a 4th generation pattern language at Purplsoc, building on Takashi Iba’s 3-generation model

  • More objects of design, systemic forms, structure, behaviours
  • Active design
  • Want to connect agency, directionality
  • We haven’t gone far, had a workshop at PLoP

At the of 2017, created a systems sciences and pattern literacy group with the Bertalanffy Centre, conducted a survey

A synthesized pattern definition

  • An arrangement
  • of elements
  • repeated or repeatable
  • cognized or recognized
  • as manifestation of reality (whatever philosophy) of a system of work
  • inquiring, meaning-making and design
  • crossing boundaries
  • key in understanding and orientation of systems behavior and outcomes


Connecting inquiry, meaning-making and design

Patterns exist in the world, in our minds, as material forms, similtaneously (as captured by Christopher Alexander)

  • Michael Mehaffy:  partial symmetric relaitons and isomorphic correspondences
  • Christian Kohl

How does this work?

  • Work on Harvard on core human languages, pre-linguistic:  Cary and Spelke — forms, quantity, objects, agents, places

How do we retain what we perceive?

How effective is the problem-solution associaton?

Things and generative processes

Ways forward:

  • Acknowledge the semiotic nature of pattern

Can we use patterns as systemic research / boundary objects

#pattern-language, #puarl2018

2018/10/27 10:15 Greg Bryant, “The Biology and Pedagogy of Judgment”, PUARL

Parallel breakout by @greg_bryant at @PUARLuo 2018 Conference.

This digest was created in real-time during the meeting, based on the speaker’s presentation(s) and comments from the audience. The content should not be viewed as an official transcript of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. The digest has been made available for purposes of scholarship, posted by David Ing.

Greg Bryant is editor of Rain Magazine.

PUARL 2018
Greg Bryant, PUARL 10th Anniversary Conference

Metaphysical contrast:  Trying to move towards natural science, Christopher Alexander was headed that way

  • Natural science, rather than performative or philosophical

Alexander’s research focus over time, came and went, over time

  • What is good?  This is a question with natural science
  • How do we make more good happen?

Pattern was an English translation of Gestalt, which was a precursor to cognitive science

Contrast to a rhetorical approach

  • Try to inspire people with words?
  • Will natural science help them with better work?
  • Alexander tried rhetoric, and tried natural science
  • Natural science difficult to pick up:  The Nature of Order, people aren’t getting it
  • If want to propogate further, can we give people feedback?  Can we do this with a computer?

The judgement of life as natural structure

  • Life, harmony, we ARE a meter
  • Involves brain and lower senses, but we don’t really know that much about ourselves
  • It is within us
  • What is out there that is making an impression on us?
  • Questions being formed in the brain
  • Distinguish between something natural, and something cognitive

If we’re the meter, and it’s biology, Alexander in Nature of Order volume 4, calls it Life Perception Faculty

  • Have to examine ourselves
  • This doesn’t mean the universe isn’t involved


  • Climbing is innate
  • Screwdriver is a technical term, composed, we’re able to correlate (Marcel Just and Tom Mitchell at Carnegie Mellon) across every language
  • Aristotle:  how can we understand each other in different languages, if we didn’t have the same brain
  • Neuro-correlate studies
  • When we recognize geometry, there are things being used
  • Teaching natural structure, there are other things that are interesting, we have busy mental lives
  • Life Perception Faculty makes this for us

Things that interfere have properties:

  • Descartes, why don’t we see the triangle?
  • There’s a cognitive mapping, in classical geometry
  • Plato played to Meno, classical geometry was innate

We don’t understand nature from a natural science perspective

  • Working scientists are narrow, they don’t think they know a lot in their fields
  • An abandoned idea to understand nature, we have theories
  • We don’t understand the world, we don’t understand ourselves

If there’s a meter, what stimulates us?

  • Impression:  say, I am experiencing a visual artifact, e.g. an optical illusion; we all experience that, we don’t examine the eye
  • Can’t see the light in the eye as a physical effect, but we’ve accepted this in natural science that people say they see the after-impression

Asking which has more life?

  • Then can tune

Covarying, e.g. pushing down the pedal on gas means we go faster

  • Alexander used this process to find 15 properties
  • Can be done with experiments
  • Can find out which part of brains are in use; does it happen when we’re asleep and eyes are closed
  • Have to have good experimental questions

Finding properties with covariance

  • Need to do more to legitimize
  • The meter in the brain
  • In natural science, it’s not explored in the way the pattern language group does this
  • Asking geometric questions:  how do you know it’s a dead animal?  How to you recognize that?  An unanswer question.

Three factors in judging natural structure

  • Innate
  • Simulating (which can atrophy, so that don’t have access)
  • Have natural laws of what it happens within it:  It’s not because we have a gene, biophysics

To prepare someone to understand natural structure, have to get rid of a lot of stuff

  • Cognitive structure
  • Spectacle
  • Symbols
  • Language
  • … Natural world doesn’t have all of these things

In trying to create the idea of centers, then how do you put all of these things aside?

Forest to timber exercise

  • Enjoy the forest
  • Then ask, how many trees in the forest, you use cognition, and then you look at the forest differently
  • Asking more questions, people moving farther and farther away from the natural structure

Process was Alexander’s first pedagogical technique

  • Unfolding sequences:  imagine it’s like a flower growing, tree unfolding, so that you can do like natural structure

Gatemaker:  17 steps for a specific thing, to make a gate in any location

  • Position –> opening –> …
  • Ordered morphological and goal-specific steps until they get to the gate
  • Doesn’t tell them what to do
  • It’s on

Can use Gatemaker for construction

#pattern-language, #puarl2018

2018/10/27 08:55 Susan Ingham, “Building Beauty: An Innovative Program in Architectural Education”, PUARL Conference

Plenary by #SusanIngham, on behalf of co-presenters in audience at @PUARLuo 2018 Conference.

This digest was created in real-time during the meeting, based on the speaker’s presentation(s) and comments from the audience. The content should not be viewed as an official transcript of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. The digest has been made available for purposes of scholarship, posted by David Ing.

Copresenters:  Maggie Moore Alexander, Sergio Porta, Yodan Rofe, Susan Ingham, Christopher Andrews, and Duo Dickinson

[Susan Ingham]

PUARL 2018
Susan Ingham, at PUARL 10th Anniversary Conference

1 year post-graduate certificate, focused on design and building

  • In Sorrento, founded on Christopher Alexander’s theories
  • This happened in Berkeley, but that ended in the late 1990s

Second year starts in a few weeks

Founded on 13 principles

3 areas of study:

  • 1. Construction and Cultivation
  • 2. Self, Community and Space
  • 3. Seminars, including a year-long study on the Nature of Order

The Home Program:  Constant in human race, is making homes that give us joy and make beauty, not just survival

  • U. Hartford, U San Fran self-selected students did a house, juried

Christopher Andrews:  Carpets, Vessels and Tiles

Yodan:  The Sant’Anna Garden Project

#pattern-language, #puarl2018