The 22 laws, principles and theorems of management cybernetics by Barry Clemson and @allennaleonard are can be applied to describe an organization.

In my 1984 introductory book on management cybernetics … Allenna Leonard and I listed 22 laws, principles, and theorems of management cybernetics. Ern Reynolds then suggested a very useful exercise: paste the name of your organization in place of the word “system” in the 22 laws, principles and theorems. You will then have a useful cybernetic description of your organization.

Here are the 22 laws, principles and theorems.

1.

System Holism Principle: A system has holistic properties possessed by none of its parts. Each of the system parts has properties not possessed by the system as a whole.2.

Darkness Principle: no system can be known completely.3.

Eighty-Twenty Principle: In any large, complex system, eighty percent of the output will be produced by only twenty percent of the system.4.

Complementarity Law: Any two different perspectives (or models) about a system will reveal truths about that system that are neither entirely independent nor entirely compatible.5.

Hierarchy Principle: Complex natural phenomena are organized in hierarchies with each level made up of several integral systems.6.

Godel’s Incompleteness Theorem: All consistent axiomatic foundations of number theory include undecidable propositions.7.

Entropy – the Second Law of Thermodynamics: In any closed system the differences in energy can only stay the same or decrease over time; or, in any closed system the amount of order (or organization) can never increase and must eventually decrease.8.

Redundancy of Information Theorem: Errors in information transmission can be protected against (to any level of confidence required) by increasing the redundancy in the messages.9.

Redundancy of Resources Principle: Maintenance of stability under conditions of disturbance requires redundancy of critical resources.10.

Redundancy of Potential Command Principle: In any complex decision network, the potential to act effectively is conferred by an adequate concatenation of information.11.

Relaxation time Principle: System stability is possible only if the system’s relaxation time is shorter than the mean time between disturbances.12.

Circular Causality Principle One: Given positive feedback (i.e., a two-part system in which each stimulates any initial change in the other), radically different end states are possible from the same initial conditions.13.

Circular Causality Principle Two: Given negative feedback (i.e., a two-part system in which each part tends to offset any change in the other), the equiibrial state is invariant over a wide range of initial conditions.14.

Feedback dominance theorem: For high gain amplifiers, the feedback dominates the output over wide variations in input.15.

Homeostasis Principle: A system survives only so long as all essential variables are maintained within their physiological limits.16.

Steady State Principle:If a system is in a state of equilibrium (a steady state), then all sub-systems must be in equilibrium. If all sub-systems are in a state of equilibrium, then the system must be in equilibrium.17.

Requisite Variety Law: The control achievable by a given regulatory sub-system over a given system is limited by 1) the variety of the regulator, and 2) the channel capacity between the regulator and the system.18.

Conant-Ashby theorem: Every good regulator of a system must be a model of that system.19.

Self-Organizing Systems Principle: Complex systems organize themselves; the characteristic structural and behavioral patterns in a complex system are primarily a result of the interactions among the system parts.20.

Basins of Stability Principle: Complex systems have basins of stability separated by thresholds of instability. A system “parked” on a ridge will “roll downhill”.21.

Viability Principle: Viability is a function of the balance maintained along two dimensions: 1) autonomy of sub-systems versus integration of the system as a whole, and 2) stability versus adaptation.22.

Recursive System Theorem:If a viable system contains a viable system, then the organizational structure must be recursive; or, in a recursive organizational structure, any viable system contains, and is contained in, a viable system.Allenna Leonard and I articulated these 22 “laws” in 1982 or 1983. I hope we can think about this again in the near future and perhaps add a few more.

Originally posted as “What is Management Cybernetics?” | Barry Clemson | October 28, 2011 | barryclemson.net http://www.barryclemson.net/archives/939.

Via reposting as “What is #Management #Cybernetics? 22 laws by Barry Clemson (#stwg #systemsthinking)” | Nicolas Stamp | Nov. 12, 2012 | at http://www.appreciatingsystems.com/2012/11/what-is-management-cybernetics-22-laws-by-barry-clemson-stwg-systemsthinking/