A logic model for philanthropic effectiveness | Peter Frumkin | 2006

Program evaluation can be approached from the philanthropic perspective.

In searching for ways to give money effectively, donors have many options and confront a wide range of theories about how to achieve impact. It is possible to think about these theories as falling into three main categories: theories of change, theories of leverage, and theories of scale. Of course, there are strong connections linking these theories to each other, and choices made in one realm have consequences for choices made in others.  [p. 174]

[….] Clarifying a logic model usually starts with defining a theory of change that commits the donor to a set or class of giving targets. [p. 175]

[….] Theories of leverage are different from theories of change in that they focus not so much on the grand idea of how impact is best created, but rather on the mechanics of the process. Leverage is something that allows donors to increase the effectiveness of their giving. [….]

[….] Beyond developing a theory of change and locating points of leverage, donors concerned with increasing the impact of their giving tend to focus on a third element: the theory of scale that will guide their philanthropic work. [….]

Theories of change, theories of leverage, and theories of scale can be understood as a set of interconnected concepts, all pointing toward the idea of increased programmatic effectiveness and impact. Theories of change are the hear of logic models and strategy development. Theories of leverage and scale are the supporting tactics at the front and back ends of the logic model that allow the donor to maximize impact. [p. 176]

Here are the headings in the rest of the chapter.

  • Theories of change
    • Individuals
    • Organizations
    • Networks
    • Politics
    • Ideas
    • Unresolved Issues
  • Theories of Leverage
    • Grantmaking Tactics
      • Short-Term Grants
      • Matching Grants
      • Loans and Program-Related Investments
      • Large Grants
      • Grants Drive by Proactive RFPs
      • High-Engagement Grantmaking
      • Overseas Funding
      • Joint Funding
      • Technical Assistance, Planning and Capacity
    • Programmatic Tactics
      • Communities, Not Program Areas
      • New Initiatives and Pilot Programs
      • Support for Nonprofit Collaborations, Not Isolated Work
      • Private Funding for Public Programs
      • Funding of Commercial Ventures within Nonprofits
      • Funding for Organizations Designed ans Set Up by Grantmakers
      • Funding for Independent Evaluations
  • Theories of Scale
    • Scale as Financial Strength
    • Scale as Program Expansion
    • Scale as Comprehensiveness
    • Scale as Replication
    • Scale as Accepted Doctrine

“Logic Models: Theories of Change, Leverage, and Scale” | Peter Frumkin | 2006 (online 2013) | Strategic Giving at http://dx.doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226266282.003.0007

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