1968 Buckley, “Modern Systems Research for the Behavioral Scientist: A Sourcebook”

One book that I uncovered early in my systems sciences journal (circa 1998-1998) was a 1968 volume by Walter Buckley. In 2007, I had posted the contents of the book in the “Collections and Resources” section of the System Sciences Connections Conversations.

The content has been saved on the Internet Archive. I’m resurfacing it here (and adding some updates), so that search engines might pick up the contents again. It should be noted that the volume is a compendium of works that might be available elsewhere. The table of contents itself is worth browsing. (The original links on the Internet Archive are complemented by contemporary links).

In 2017, it looks like Routledge has republished the volume as an ebook. There’s a downloadable PDF of the table of contents, foreword and the first chapter (by Boulding). Strangely, ebook seems to only go to Chapter 47 … which might be overlooked if not for this transcription from the original 1968 hardcopy.


Walter Buckley (editor), Modern Systems Research for the Behavioral Scientist: A Sourcebook, Aldine Publishing Company, 1968.

There’s an entry on Walter F. Buckley on Wikipedia [contemporary link].  There is a “Walter Buckley Memorial Award for Excellence in Presenting Sociocybernetics” [contemporary link] sponsored by the RC51 Research Committee on Sociocybernetics, with a description of his contribution [contemporary link].  He was honoured in 1998 at the World Congress of Sociology [contemporary link].


Contents

Preface

Foreword, by Anatol Rapoport

General Introduction

Part I. General Systems Research: Overview

1. Kenneth E. Boulding, “General Systems Theory — The Skeleton of Science”

  • From Kenneth Boulding, “General Systems Theory — the Skeleton of Science,” Management Science, 2 (1956), 197-208.  Reprinted with the permission of Management Science and the author.

2. Ludwig von Bertalanffy, “General Systems Theory — A Critical Review”

  • From Ludwig von Bertalanffy, “General Systems Theory — A Critical Review,” General Systems, VII (1962) 1-20.  Reprinted with permission of the author and the Society for General Systems Research.

3. Norbert Wiener, “Cybernetics in History”

  • From Norbert Wiener, “Cybernetics in History,” The Human Use of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday Anchor, 1954), Chapter I.  Reprinted with permission of Houghton Mifflin Company.

Part II. Parts, Wholes, and Levels of Integration

4. Edward Purcell, “Parts and Wholes in Physics”

  • From Edward Purcell, “Parts and Wholes in Physics.” Reprinted with permission of The Free Press from Parts and Wholes, edited by Daniel S. Lerner.  Copyright 1963 by Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

5. K. M. Khalilov, “The Problem of Systemic Organization in Theoretical Biology”

  • From K. M. Khailov, “The Problem of Systemic Organization in Theoretical Biology,” translated by Anatol Rapoport from “Problema sistemnoi organizovannosti v teoreticheskoi biologii,” Zhurnal Obschchei Biologii, 24 (1963), 324-332, in General Systems, IX (1964), 151-157.  Reprinted by permission of the translator.

6. R. W. Gerard, “Units and Concepts of Biology”

  • From R. W. Gerard, “Units and Concepts of Biology,” Science, 125 (1957), 429-33.  Reprinted by permission of the author and Science.

7. Robert Redfield, “Levels of Integration in Biological and Social Systems”

  • From Robert Redfield, “Introduction,” in Robert Redfield (Ed.) Levels of Integration in Biological and Social Systems (Lancaster, Pa.: Jacques Catell Press, 1942), pp. 5-26.  Reprinted with permission of Jacques Catell Press.

Part III. Systems, Organization and the Logic of Relations

8. Anatol Rapoport and William J. Horvath, “Thoughts on Organizational Theory”

  • From Anatol Rapoport and Willian J. Horvath, “Thoughts on Organization Theory,” General Systems, 4 (1959), 87-91.  Reprinted by permission of the authors and the Society for General Systems Research.

9. V. I. Kremyanskiy, “Certain Peculiarities of Organisms as a ‘System’ from the Point of View of Physics, Cybernetics, and Biology”

  • From V. I. Kremyanskiy, “Certain Peculiarities of Organisms as a ‘System’ from the Point of View of Physics, Cybernetics, and Biology,” a translation of a Russian article preapred by U.S. Joint Publications Research Service.  Original publications in Voporsy Filosofii (Problems of Philosophy), August, 1958, pp. 97-107.  Translated from the Russian by Anatol Rapoport in General Systems, 5 (1960), 221-24.  Reprinted by permission of the translator and publisher.

10. A. D. Hall and R. E. Fagen, “Definition of System”

  • From A. D. Hall and R. E. Fagen, “Definition of System,” revised introductory chapter of Systems Engineering (New York: Bell Telephone Laboratories), reprinted from General Systems, I (1956), 18-28.  Reprinted by permission of the authors and Bell Telephone Laboratories.

11. Warren S. McCulloch and Walter H. Pitts, “A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity”

  • Reprinted from The Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics, 5 (1943), 115-33, with permission of the authors and editor.  To conserve space, the tentative mathematical sections II and III have been omitted.  For more recent and precise work in this area, see S. C. Kleene, “Representation of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite Automata,” in C. E. Shannon and J. McCarthy (Eds.), Automata Studies (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1956); and I. M. Copi, C. C, Elgot, and J. B. Wright, “Realization of Events by Logical Nets,” J. Assn Computing Machinery, 5 (1958), 181-96.

12. John von Neumann, “The General and Logical Theory of Automata”

  • From John von Neumann, “The General and Logical Theory of Automata, “in Lloyd A. Jeffress (Ed.), Cerebral Mechanisms in Beahvior: The Hixon Symposium (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1951), pp. 1-2, 15-31.  Reprinted by permission of the author and publisher.  To conserve space, two sections unessential to von Neumann’s theory of automata have been omitted; they are entitled “Discussion of Certain Relevant Traits of Computing Machines” and “Comparisons between Computing Machines and Living Organisms.”  To complete the paper from which this selection is excerpted, the author attached this note:  “This paper is an only slightly edited version of one that was read at the Hixon Symposium on September 20, 1948, in Pasadena, California.  Since it was delivered as a single lecture, it was not feasible to go into as much detail on every point as would have been desirable for a final publication.  In the present write-up it seemed appropriate to follow the dispositions of the talk; therefore this paper, too, is in many places more sketchy than desirable.  It is to be taken only as a general outline of ideas and of tendencies.”

13. W. Ross Ashby, “Principles of the Self-Organizing System”

  • From W. Ross Ashby, “Principles of the Self-Organizing System,” in Heinz von Foerster and George W. Zopf (Eds.), Principles of Self-Organization (New York: Pergamon Press, 1962), pp. 255-78.  Reprinted by permission of the author and publisher.

Part IV. Information, Communication, and Meaning

14. George A. Miller, “What is Information Management?”

  • Reprinted from American Psychologist, 8 (1963), 3-11, with permission of the author and publisher.

15. W. Ross Ashby, “Variety, Constraint, and the Law of Requisite Variety”

  • From W. Ross Ashby, An Introduction to Cybernetics (London: Chapman and Hall, 1956), Chapter 7, pp. 123-134, and Chapter 11, pp. 202-209.  Reprinted with permission of the author and publisher.

16. Anatol Rapoport, “The Promise and Pitfalls of Information Theory”

  • From Anatol Rapoport, “The Promise and Pitfalls of Information Theory,” Behavioral Science, I (1956) 303-309.  Reprinted by permission of the author and publisher.

A. Entropy and Life

17. Erwin Schrödinger, “Order, Disorder and Entropy”

  • From Erwin Schrödinger, What Is Life? (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1945), Chapter VI.  Reprinted by permission of the publisher.

18. L. Brillouin, “Life, Thermodynamics, and Cybernetics”

  • From L. Brillouin, “Life, Thermodynamics, and Cybernetics, ” American Scientist, 37 (October, 1949), 554-68.  Reprinted by permission of the author and publisher.

19. Richard C. Raymond, “Communication, Entropy and Life”

  • From Richard C. Raymond, “Communication, Entropy and Life,” American Scientist, 38 (April, 1950), 273-78.  Reprinted by permission of the author and publisher.

20. L. Brillouin, “Thermodynamics and Information Theory”

  • L. Brillouin, “Thermodynamics and Information Theory,” American Scientist, 38 (October 1950), 594-99.  Reprinted by permission of the author and publisher.

21. Mortimer Ostow, “The Entropy Concept and Psychic Function”

  • From Mortimer Ostow, “The Entropy Concept and Psychic Function,” American Scientist, 39 (1951), 140-44.  Reprinted by permission of the author and publisher.

22. Heinz von Foerster, “From Stimulus to Symbol: The Economy of Biological Computation”

  • From Heinz von Foerster, “From Stimulus to Symbol: The Economy of Biological Computation,” in Gyorgy Kepes (Ed.) Sign, Image, Symbol (New York: George Braziller, 1966).  Reprinted with permission from the author and publisher.

B. Behavior and Meaning

23. F. C. Frick, “The Application of Information Theory in Behavioral Studies”

  • Condensed from F. C. Frick, “Information Theory,” in Psychology:  A Study of a Science, Vol. 2, pp. 611-15, 629-36, edited by Sigmund Koch.  Copyright 1959 by McGraw-Hill, Inc.  Used by permission of the author and McGraw-Hill Book Co.

24. Charles E. Osgood, “A Behavioristic Analysis of Perception and Language as Cognitive Phenomena”

  • Reprinted by permission of the author and the publishers from Contemporary Approaches to Cognition: A Symposium Held at the University of Colorado (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press), pp. 75-118.  Copyright, 1957, by the Presidents and Fellows of Harvard College.

25. Donald M. MacKay, “The Informational Analysis of Questions and Commands”

  • From D. M. MacKay, “The Informational Analysis of Questions and Commands,” in Colin Cherry (Ed.), Information Theory: Fourth London Symposium (London: Butterworth’s, 1961).  Reprinted by permission of the author and publisher.

26. Russell L. Ackoff, “Towards a Behavioral Theory of Communications”

  • From Russell L. Ackoff, “Towards a Behavioral Theory of Communications,” Management Science, 4 (1957-58), 218-34.  Reprinted by permission of the author and publisher.

Part V. Cybernetics: Purpose, Self-Regulation and Self-Direction

A. Cybernetics and Purpose

27. Arturo Rosenblueth, Norbert Wiener, and Julian Bigelow, “Behavior, Purpose and Teleology”

  • From Arturo Rosenblueth, Norbert Wiener, and Julian Bigelow, “Behavior, Purpose and Teleology,” Philosophy of Science, 10 (1943), 18-24.  Copyright 1943, The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, Md. 21202, U.S.A.  Reprinted by permission.

28. Richard Taylor, “Comments on a Mechanistic Conception of Purposefulness”

  • From Richard Taylor, “Comments on a Mechanistic Conception of Purposefulness,” Philosophy of Science, 17 (1950), 310-17.  Copyright 1950, The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, Md. 21202, U.S.A.  Reprinted by permission.

29. Arturo Rosenblueth and Norbert Wiener, “Purposeful and Non-Purposeful Behavior”

  • From Arturo Rosenblueth and Norbert Wiener, “Purposeful and Non-Purposeful Behavior,” Philosophy of Science, 17 (1950), 318-26.  Copyright 1950, The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, Md. 21202, U.S.A.  Reprinted by permission.

30. Richard Taylor, “Purposeful and Non-Purposeful Behavior: A Rejoinder”

  • From Richard Taylor, “Purposeful and Non-Purposeful Behavior: A Rejoinder,” Philosophy of Science, 17 (1950), 327-32.  Copyright 1950, The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, Md. 21202, U.S.A.  Reprinted by permission.

31. C. W. Churchman and R. L. Ackoff, “Purposive Behavior and Cybernetics”

  • From C. W. Churchman and R. L. Ackoff, “Purposive Behavior and Cybernetics,” Social Forces, 29, 1 (October, 1950), 32-39.  Reprinted by permission of the authors and The University of North Carolina Press.

32. Omar K. Moore and Donald J. Lewis, “Purpose and Learning Theory”

  • From Omar K. Moore and Donald J. Lewis, “Purpose and Learning Theory,” Psychological Review, 60 (May, 1953), 149-56.  Reprinted with permission of the authors and American Psychological Association.

B. Homeostatis and Evolution

33. Walter B. Cannon, “Self-Regulation of the Body”

  • Reprinted from The Wisdom of the Body by Walter B. Cannon, by permission of W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.  Revised and enlarged edition copyright 1939 by Walter B. Cannon.  Copyright renewed 1960 by Cornelia J. Cannon.

34. J. W. S. Pringle, “On the Parallel between Learning and Evolution”

  • From J. W. S. Pringle, “On the Parallel between Learning and Evolution,” Behaviour, 3 (1951), 174-215.  Reprinted by permission of the author and E. J. Brill Ltd., Publishers, Leiden.

35. G. Sommerhoff, “Purpose, Adaptation and ‘Directive Correlation'”

  • From G. Sommerhof, Analytical Biology (London: Oxford University Press, 1950), Chapter II.  Reprinted with permission of the Clarendon Press, Oxford.

36. W. Ross Ashby, “Regulation and Control”

  • From W. Ross Ashby, An Introduction to Cybernetics (London: Chapman and Hall, 1956), Chapter 10, pp. 195-201, and Chapter 11, pp. 209-218.  Reprinted with permission of the author and Chapman & Hall.  The reader should recall Chapter 15 above reprinting earlier sections from this work that are important for the present discussion.

37. Magoroh Maruyama, “The Second Cybernetics: Deviation-Amplifying Mutual Causal Processes”

  • From Magoroh Maruyama, “The Second Cybernetics: Deviation-Amplifying Mutual Causal Processes,” American Scientist, 51 (1963), 164-79.  Reprinted by permission of the author and publisher.

Part VI. Self-Regulation and Self-Direction in Psychological Systems

38. Charles W. Slack, “Feedback Theory and the Reflex Arc Concept”

  • From Charles W. Slack, “Feedback Theory and the Reflex Arc Concept,” Psychological Review, 62 (1955), 263-67.  Reprinted by permission of the author and the American Psychological Association.

39. Richard Held and Sanford J. Freedman, “Plasticity in Human Sensorimotor Control”

  • From Richard Held and Sanford J. Freedman, “Plasticity in Human Sensorimotor Control,” Science, 142, (25 October 1963), 455-61.  Copyright 1963 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science.  Reprinted by permission of the author and publisher.

40. Tamotsu Shibutani, “A Cybernetic Approach to Motivation”

  • Published originally in this volume.

41. O. H. Mowrer, “Ego Psychology, Cybernetics, and Learning Theory”

  • From O. H. Mowrer, “Ego Psychology, Cybernetics, and Learning Theory,” in Donald K. Adams et al. (Eds.), Learning Theory and Clinical Research (New York: John Wiley, 1954), pp. 81-90.  Reprinted by permission of the author and publisher.

42. Gordon W. Allport, “The Open System in Personaltiy Theory”

  • From Gordon W. Allport, “The Open System in Personaltiy Theory,” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 61 (1960), 301-11.  Reprinted by permission of the author and publisher.

43. Joseph N. Notterman and Richard Trumbull, “Note on Self-Regulating Systems and Stress”

  • From Joseph N. Notterman and Richard Trumbull, “Note on Self-Regulating Systems and Stress”, Behavioral Science, 4 (October, 1950), 324-27.  Reprinted by permission of the authors and publisher.

44. Geoffrey Vickers, “The Concept of Stress in Relation to the Disorganization of Human Behaviour”

  • From Geoffrey Vickers, “The Concept of Stress in Relation to the Disorganization of Human Behaviour,” in J. M. Tanner (Ed.), Stress and Psychiatric Disorder (Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications, Ltd., 1959), pp. 3-10.  Reprinted by permission of the author and publisher.

45. Donald M. Mackay, “Towards an Information-Flow Model of Human Behaviour”

  • From Donald M. Mackay, “Towards an Information-Flow Model of Human Behaviour,” British Journal of Psychology, 47 (1956), 30-43.  Reprinted by permission of the author and publisher.

46. George A. Miller, Eugene Galanter, and Karl H. Pribram, “Plans and the Structure of Behaviour”

  • From George A. Miller, Eugene Galanter, and Karl H. Pribram, Plans and the Structure of Behaviour (New York: Holt, Reinhart & Winston, 1960), Chapter 2 and 4.  Reprinted by permission of the authors and publisher.

Part VII. Self-Regulation and Self-Direction in Sociocultural Systems

47. Karl W. Deutsch, “Toward a Cybernetic Model of Man and Society”

  • From Karl W. Deutsch, “Some Notes on Research on the Role of Models in the Natural and Social Sciences,”  Synthese, 7 (’48-’49), 506-33.  Reprinted with permission of the author and D. Reidel Publishing Co.

A. Social Control: Internal Variety and Constraints

48. S. F. Nadel, “Social Control and Self-Regulation”

  • From S. F. Nadel, “Social Control and Self-Regulation,” Social Forces, 31 (March, 1953), 265-73.  Reprinted by permission of The University of North Carolina Press.

49. Roger Nett, “Conformity-Deviation and the Social Control Concept”

  • Reprinted from Roger Nett, “Conformity-Deviation and the Social Control Concept,” Ethics, 64 (1953), 38-45, by permission of the author and the University of Chicago Press.  Copyright 1953 by the University of Chicago Press.

50. Roger Owen, “Variety and Constraint in Cultural Adaptation”

  • Revised version of a paper read at the 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, November 21, 1963, San Francisco, California; originally titled “The Social Demography of Northern Baja California: Non-linguistically Based Patri-local Bands.”  With permission of the author.

51. Leslie T. Wilkins, “A Behavioural Theory of Drug Taking”

  • From Leslie T. Wilkins, “A Behavioural Theory of Drug Taking,” Howard Journal, Vol. XI, No. 4 (1965), pp. 6-17.  Reprinted by permission of the author and publisher.

B. Social Control: Organizational Goal Seeking

52. David Easton, “A Systems Analysis of Political Life”

  • From David Easton, A Systems Analysis of Political Life (New York: John Wiley, 1965), Chapter 2, pp. 17-35.  Reprinted by permission of the author and publisher.  Copyright 1965 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

53. Mervyn L. Cadwallader, “The Cybernetic Analysis of Change in Complex Social Organizations”

  • Reprinted from Mervyn L. Cadwallader, “The Cybernetic Analysis of Change in Complex Social Organizations,” American Journal of Sociology, 65 (1959), 154-57, by permission of The University of Chicago Press.  Copyright 1959 by The University of Chicago Press.

54. Kurt Lewin, “Feedback Problems of Social Diagnosis and Action”

  • From Kurt Lewin, “Frontiers in Group Dynamics,” Part II-B, Human Relations, I (1947), pp. 147-53.  Reprinted by permission of Tavistock Publications Ltd.

55. Chadwick J. Haberstroh, “Control as an Organizational Process”

  • Chadwick J. Haberstroh, “Control as an Organizational Process,” Management Science, 6 (January, 1960), 165-71.  Reprinted by permission of the author and publisher.

56. Garrett Hardin, “The Cybernetics of Competition: A Biologist’s View of Society”

  • Reprinted from Garrett Hardin, “The Cybernetics of Competition: A Biologist’s View of Society,” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, VII (Autumn, 1963), 61-84, by permission of the University of Chicago Press.  Copyright 1963 by the University of Chicago Press.

57. Geoffrey Vickers, “Is Adaptability Enough?”

  • From Geoffrey Vickers, “Is Adaptability Enough?” Behavioral Science, 4 (1959), 219-34.  Reprinted by permission of the author and publisher.

C. Decision Processes and Group Structure

58. Anatol Rapoport, “Critiques of Game Theory”

  • From Anatol Rapoport, “Critiques of Game Theory,” Behavioral Science, Vol. 4 (1959), 49-66.  Reprinted by permission of the author and publisher.

59. Walter Buckley, “Society as a Complex Adaptive System”

  • Many of the ideas expressed here appear in more extended form in the author’s Sociology and Modern Systems Theory (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.:  Prentice-Hall, 1967).

Selected References

Index

Book cover:  Systems Research for Behavioral Science: A Sourcebook, Walter Buckley, editor

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