2017/10/08 13:10 Alice Rawsthorn, “Good or Bad Design”, EditDX

Keynote @alicerawsthorn @EditDX

Introduction by Nina Boccia @nboccia Director of Programs, Design Exchange


[Alice Rawsthorn]

Good or bad design in light of sustainable development goals

Machine Art, exhibition at MoMA 1934

  • Curated by Philip Johnson, a student, who had gone to Baushaus
  • Championed modern movement
  • A year after joining, added design
  • Machine Art was first project in 1934
  • Speed, economy, convenience
  • Amelia Earhardt
  • Visitors weren’t accustomed, reviews were dreadful, letters of complaint flooded in
  • Now seen as an enduring influence on popular perceptions:  what something does, and what it looks like

“The Beauty of Life”, William Morris — lecture similar to Johnson

  • Nothing in your house that isn’t useful
  • William Morris hated this

Then, art context, like Pompidou Centre, more how it looks, not so much function

Citroen car, 1955 in exhibition

  • Fall from the sky

Toaster

Fostered idea of industrial design

  • Can be damaging
  • Symbols of design beauty

Alice Rawsthorn at EditDX

Valentina typewriter 1969 for Olivetti, but it didn’t work, stopped production to so many complaints

  • Yet it’s still in design museums worldwide

Businesses and NGOs only thinking of design in this way is limiting

Accra, outside Ghana

  • Where waste goes to die
  • Can design be used to clean this up, instead of filling it with junk like this?

Use in healthcare?

Not just unfit for purpose, but irrelevant

  • What should replace it?

Defining design

Design is an agent of change that can help us to make sense of what is happening, and to turn it to our advantage.

  • Changes could be economical, social …
  • Doesn’t have to be scary
  • Need this, right now, for speed and scale

Women’s march on London:  Too much to fit on one sign

  • Terrorism
  • Accelerating science and technology
  • Refugee crisis

Design isn’t a panacea, but can help … if society allows it to do so

  • Only if process includes design as good and bad

Non-negotiable quality since 1880, usefulness

  • Why consider desirable if not useful?

New Bus for London 2012 (new Routemaster), replacing 1954 model Routemaster

  • Named the Boris bus
  • New Routemaster looks good, when you see a lot more together
  • Quality of engineering is so poor, it breaks down
  • Diesel breakdowns
  • Overheating for passengers
  • It’s too unreliable to be useful
  • Tasteful rubbish is still rubbish:  Reyner Banham

Digital product:  Google Glass

  • Seems so exciting at Google, thought the rest of us would wear them
  • The look dodgy, don’t do much more than phones
  • Triggered court cases
  • Mocked
  • Sales poor, stopped making them in 2013
  • Wasn’t useful, although it serve function

Useful needs to be combined with third, integrity

  • If concerned with manufacturing, distribution, etc. … it can’t be consider as good design

Roland Barthes:  any pleasure from car is blighted by it being a gas-guzzling economic bomb

Apple iPhone:  following physics in the hand

  • But environmental impact, and workers?
  • Apple has made some progress, but still worry
  • Can’t possibly look at them anymore
  • Or Dublin taxes

Fairphone:  sustainable

  • Know they’re trying to develop as responsibility and sustainable as possible
  • Without integrity, can’t be designed responsibility

Razor wire on fence at Calais, to prevent refugees from leaving France

  • Homeless spikes to stop people from sleeping there
  • Purpose is odious
  • No integrity

Another response:  Talking Hands, Treviso in Italy

  • Many refugees on their way through
  • Most living illegally, nothing to do
  • Can’t be employed legally
  • Local designers set up and run talking hands workshops
  • Hand skills, focusing on skills the refugees already have
  • Carpentry, embroidering
  • An example of good design, empathic, useful

Useful and integrity, changes beauty

Material quality

  • Shapes come in and out of fashion

Postmodernism 1980s

  • Neo-rationalism in 1990s
  • Now, Chinese design:  objects 3-D printed, reminiscent of what we see on our screen
  • 3D printing, ever more innate intricacy

Cookery, bone china with chisel

  • Chisel was thought too coarse for porcelain
  • Singularity
  • Looks different from different heights and views
  • Creates an optical illusion that each piece is unique

Singularity rising, because of digitalization making things uniform

Politics of personal identity, radical redefinition of identity and gender

  • Being biologically black
  • Feminism, transgenderism
  • Increasing fluidity gender
  • Facebook tried to add 58 types of options, but then people complained that they couldn’t express themselves, Facebook responded with a freeform field
  • Fashion graphics can reflect colours, political concerns
  • Can use digital manufacturing systems, become more affordable and accessible

Are we going to exercise choice?

  • Not everyone wants to cook their own food
  • But do-it-yourself is becoming popular
  • Pleasure of making
  • Exposure to digital technologies, making us more sensitive to touch

Touch:

  • Light fixture manufacture, Simon 100, no physical cues
  • We’re so accustomed to using phones by touch, we know how to use it
  • Too sharp, too wet, too slippery is uncomfortable

Hardware of tablet:

  • Pull to refresh, scrolling down a screen
  • NY Times:  few scientific articles on touch
  • Haptic software

Greater understanding of materials

  • Form becoming function is less important, with material become more important

Some important design projects that are good

Georg stool by Chris L. Halstrøm, a simple wooden stool manufactured in Denmark

  • Won awards, on old fashion merits
  • Political subtext, gender fluidity
  • Visualizing how it will be used, despite gender
  • Uses texture, as sense of touch is less likely to be stereotyped
  • String attaches to stool, individual can adjust to be comfortable
  • Everyone is free to interpret as they wish

Wecyclers, Lagos Nigeria

  • African designers at the vanguard, compelling projects, with humanitarian goals
  • Adebiyi Fatai Mabadeje
  • Recyclable waste building up in slums
  • Streets in slums too narrow for city trucks
  • Develop a service so that citizens can text cyclist, then trade for points, e.g. useful for food
  • 7,000 houses in Lagos use this, created 80 jobs
  • Contributes to sustainable production

Sehat Kahani:  improvisational design, to improve healthcare to women in Pakistan

  • Pakastan has shortage of women doctors, even though there are more in university
  • After graduation, women are pressured to marry
  • Network of tele-clinics, so that women doctors can practice at home
  • Tele-clinics staffed by nurses, in Karashi
  • Problems:  problem shortages, believing the women are real doctors
  • Addressed
  • Contributes to good heath and well-being

Forensic architecture:  Israeli architect, Eyal Weizman in London

  • Uses data to reconstruct scenes of criminality
  • Cameroon, evidence
  • Fostering peace and justice

All inspiring projects of good design in a contemporary sense

  • Challenges stereotype of design
  • Improve quality of life, rather than rubbish

[Questions]

Scale?  Grassroot projects.  Big powers?  Barriers?

  • Think scale is becoming more flexible
  • Empowering designers to work independently on complex problems
  • More funding, e.g. Ackerman, Gates Foundation
  • Downstairs:  Bruce Mau exhibit
  • The Ocean Cleanup project from Dutch designers, controversial, but has also generated a lot of support, clearing up plastic trash in oceans
  • $100,000 to launch project, ended up raise $2 million, now $31.5 million
  • Has prototyped in North Seas, next year will go into Pacific
  • If it flops, it will make it harder for other attitudinal designers, but if it works, it will make it easier
  • Projects have to prove merit

How can raise design philosophy?  Wanted to become a software designer, thought could change the world, build with information. Frustrated that there isn’t a language, but it isn’t practical.  Multidimensional.

  • Good news, there needs to be more debate on this issue
  • This festival shows this
  • May not come from specialist designers
  • Families will think of design differently, from coming here
  • Awful if people thought there’s not point in trying
  • The war continues, a lot of battles have been won

Example of female doctors in Amsterdam, trust?

  • Don’t know specifically
  • Have 20 tele-clinics, planning to have 150 by 2020
  • Have a lot of media support
  • Design community saw as improvisational
  • Medical professionals dealing with design in a practical way
  • Process will have been speeded up
  • Could serve dlderly women, who have a lot of medical problems

Comment, some families will go home and have pizza, others will have hand china.  Culture, we’re far away from that.  Affluent get to choose.

  • True.
  • General public awareness of sustainability and recycling has increased
  • While not at level we would like, it’s significant
  • Middle England, conservative, are skeptical
  • Local city councils providing an effective recycling service, there’s been a radical shift from landfill towards productive
  • Even 10 cent fee for plastic bags in Britain, skin flints don’t want to spend, so drastic shift
  • Some people can trade for food, cell phone minutes
  • Design has a lot to do

#design, #editdx

2014/10/17 15:15 Harold G. Nelson, “What is Systemic Design?  A Shared Inquiry”, #RSD3

@HaroldGNelson, second day plenary at #RSD3 Relating Systems Thinking and Design 3, at AHO, Oslo, Norway

This digest was created in real-time during the meeting, based on the speaker’s presentation(s) and comments from the audience. The content should not be viewed as an official transcript of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. The digest has been made available for purposes of scholarship, posted by David Ing.

Program is at http://systemic-design.net/rsd3-2014/program/


[Intro by Birger Sevaldson]

Harold is an architect, from which he has recovered

  • Was in the Berkeley bubble of systems thinkers, Rittel, Churchman

[Harold Nelson]

Will do a review / assessment of the symposium, but that would require more ground work than originally thought

This will be some thinking out load of the symposium so far

Trying to move away from polemics

  • Family got him T-shirt:  A graduated from Berkeley, so to save time, let’s assume I’m right

Prediction:  there will be a huge, dramatic change in design

  • People who will want to come into design not from material or experiential design fields
  • We will experience those shifts

Work with some of these people, excited at prospect

True believer of design, has taken over professional life

High hopes, not sure it will take over

Mantra / prejudices:

  • Don’t believe the design is science or art
  • It’s its own way of thinking
  • It’s rational, aesthetic

Can’t divide systems out from design, can’t see it as two things

  • Systems is the logic of design

David Foster Wallace:  Fish asks “how’s the water”?  What the hell is water?

Philip Ball:  No one really understands water. … still a mystery

So, what the hell is systemic design?

  • Interest in finding out what it is
  • What type of inquiry, when you’re immersed in it?

Overview effect:

  • Apollo 7 astronauts taking first picture of earth
  • Transformation experience, not a new paradigm, not a breakthrough
  • Hope we hit a pivot point like this in the field of systemic design

Hear a lot of old habit brought into the conversation

  • Believe we need a different way of looking at inquiry, at seeing what systemic design is

Like water, design is ubiquitous yet a mystery

Systemic design is an enigma

  • Brings humility

Anthropocene:  ought to be the design era

  • Can’t find the natural system, one that doesn’t show influence of human activity
  • It can’t be reversed
  • We have an incredible effect on the planet
  • We have to learn how to be responsible with that, in design

Natural systems come from unintentional consequences from the action of human beings

  • How do we become more intentional?

Design directs evolution

Science requires a change, a difference:  a process

Change of process is evolution

Change of evolution is design

We create reality

  • In this room, what is natural?
  • We live in worlds that people have made
  • Our childhood memories, who we think we are, is all involved with the designed world

How do I discover something in a dark room?

The metaphor of the elephant

  • How difficult it is to describe and explain something that is complex.
  • Trick:  who am I to stand back, and say that those people don’t understand, and see the whole part of it?

How can we see the whole?

  • What kind of inquiry do we need, to see systemic design, in its wholeness

Designs of inquiry:  scientific, spirtual, metaphysical, design, systemic design, individual, collective

Churchman, The Design of Inquiring Systems

  • Human beings designed the scientific method
  • Churchman showed fives ways of knowing the truth, there could be more

In designs, if someone agrees with you, it could be true

Collaborative inquiry:  everyone getting a piece of the action, putting things together

One of usual first steps is to end the inquiry:

  • By Oxford Dictionary says … it ends the inquiry
  • Have to keep the inquiry open and going
  • Defining is getting to the point

Design of scientific inquiry (which is the norm at conferences and academia)

  • Collecting evidence
  • Collecting data
  • Categorizing
  • Theorizing
  • … which is doing research

Research doesn’t work with design

At conferences like this, too many categories or disciplines

  • Difficult to organize

Categories of inquiry, a Venn diagram mixing systemics, design, art

Another first step:  systemic design inquiry

Was head of a graduate program in Whole Systems Design (one organizational, one whole systems design)

  • Pedagogy as a design process
  • Character is learning:  design process is a learning process
  • Students designed their own learning programming
  • Designing stages of own learning progress
  • At some levels, science dominates; at other levels more managerial
  • When programs came up for accreditation, how to explain to academics what you do?
  • Not covering in breadth (like shallow everything programs) or in depth (like science programs)
  • That space created in the matrix, we connect the dots in depth and breadth
  • Accrediting people bought it
  • Ten year period

A play on Plato’s cave

  • When we observe the same thing, we can see it’s casting different shadows in different ways
  • In a symposium, looking for shadows
  • Most people focused:  what can be implied that is casting the shadow

Distinction between collaborative inquiry and shared inquiry

  • (1) Collaborative as seeing the divisions: disciplinary, interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary
  • Challenge:  how to assemble that
  • (2) Shared inquiry as seeing the whole:  multiple perspectdives
  • Linstone pulled out three perspectives from Churchman as technical, organizational and personal, used it in different ways
  • Dominant perspective in organizations tends to be technical; then look at organizational politics; then (not individual) emotional feeling things
  • In space shuttle, the cause of the O-ring only came through from the personal perspective, fear of bosses, withholding information
  • Can expand to economic, political

Suspicion that what I’m looking at is a strange attractor

  • Like a cloud, hear multiple ways that people see
  • Form will begin to appear, as it does with a strange attractor
  • Complex dynamic systems that initially appear chaotic, but over time, hidden form appears
  • Don’t think systemic design is a simple point on a matrix

Shared inquiry, self-organizing behavior

  • Moving away from polemics on what truth is right:  there’s more on values
  • Enjoying sharing inquiry, what that looks like, what does it feel like, how does it work.

Modelling flocking and schooling, 3 simple rules of relationship

  • Coca-Cola took this for simple behavior manual
  • What we want, rules of relationship
  • Got the behaviors they wanted
  • Didn’t have to prescribe everything, just protocols that give rise to complex self-organizing behaviors

What protocols could be in place to allowed self-organizing shared behavior to emerge?

  • What would come out of a self-organizing inquiry, focused on particular designs/

Shared inquiry with three elements:

  • Conversation:  turning together in the same place
  • Dialogue:  letting things be seen through language
  • (Diascenic) Graphologue:  letting things be seen through images

At funeral, found conversations as a way to keep bond in families, not mindless

Can use formal dialogue

Then what would be allowed if we had a graphologue?

An invitation to shared appreciative inquiry, so that we can begin to understand

  • Scholarship and practice
  • Pre-socratic sophia
  • Worse after sophia got split, and then only went for knowledge
  • Doing things went to the bottom
  • Division is alive and well, destructive
  • Blue collar / white collar

Scholarship

  • Ernest Boyer, scholarship reconsidered
  • Scholarship was defined as teaching, research and service
  • For 21st century, need scholarship
  • discovery
  • inegraqtion
  • application
  • teaching

In the design world:

  • Scholarship of discovery –> Inquiry for acdtion
  • Scholarship of integration –> Systemics logic
  • Scholarship of application –> Agency and service
  • Scholarhsip of teaching

Four directdions fo inquiry into systemic design

  • Most think that research is foremost, but assessment is important
  • Not just what is true, but what should be real

Scholarhsip of systemics

  • It’s not about huge systems
  • It means looking between things
  • Could be just 2 things

Scholarship of agency and service

  • Students want to change the world
  • People like to change, they don’t like to be changed
  • Hearing a lot of “be changed” words going on
  • A systemic relationship between people
  • Agency:  did you turn an “is” into an “ought”?
  • Climate scientists are doing this now:  this is the case, therefore you “ought”, which politicizes
  • Being a scientist, but acting like a designer
  • Coercion by fact:  get things that happen by generating numbers, and overwhelming people
  • Learning takes place over time, takes time and maturation
  • From Dreyfus model of field development, capacitation:  novice, capable, competent, proficient, expert, master, guarantor
  • At novice level, need rules; then can challenge rules; at the end, don’t need rules
  • Harvard Business Review has lots of rules, for people who are focused between novice and maybe capable
  • Don’t sit in a class and get filled up with competence
  • Both for formal and information learning

Evidence of supporting and advancing systemic design at RSD3?

  • Understanding systemic design?
  • Collaborative systemic design inquiry?
  • Shared system design inquiry?

Ongoing inquiry?

  • Hope that this will emerge
  • Will be able to make sense of the shadows

Sketchnoting of Harold G. Nelson presentation by Patricia Kambitsch at https://www.flickr.com/photos/shagdora/15532672476
image

#design, #systems-thinking

2014/10/17 14:00 Hugh Dubberly, “A Systems Literacy Manifesto”, #RSD3

Hugh Dubberly, second day plenary at #RSD3 Relating Systems Thinking and Design 3, at AHO, Oslo, Norway

This digest was created in real-time during the meeting, based on the speaker’s presentation(s) and comments from the audience. The content should not be viewed as an official transcript of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. The digest has been made available for purposes of scholarship, posted by David Ing.

Program is at http://systemic-design.net/rsd3-2014/program/

Presentation posted at http://presentations.dubberly.com//system_literacy.pdf


[Intro by Peter Jones]

Dubberly was editor of ACM Interactions journal, had series on simplifying and systems

  • Collaborated on language action article

[Hugh Dubberly]

Yesterday’s talk by Ranulph Glanville

Second order cybernetics gives an epistemology for design

  • Moved from a detached pose, into the middle of things, where we must be responsible for actions
  • A rigourous way to learn:  framing design as conversation — and learning together
  • Places design in the realm of subjectivity, politics, and ethics

Churchman:  Citizens has begun to suspect that the people who make major deicsions that affect our lives don’t know what they’re doing

  • … no adequate dat

Reagan 1981:  Government is not he solution to our problems, government is the problem

  • Greek:  the root of government and cybernetics is the same, steering
  • Substitute the word “steering”:  Steering is the not the solution to our problems, steering is the problem.
  • Sold the idea that our government is not us, that it’s something bad
  • Something horrible in the U.S., need to look to Europe to help on this

Alan Greenspan 2008:  self-interest of lending institutions to preotect shareholders’ equity .. are in a state of shocked disbelief

  • Admitting he was wrong about entire life’s work
  • Wrong that markets will regulate themselves
  • Reading Maxwell:  markets can’t regulate themselves, will fall over
  • Via Ayn Rand
  • Recently, he’s been backsliding

Marco Rubio 2014:  do not believe that climate … scientists …

Decision-makers … not stupidity

  • It is a literacy

We need systems literacy in decision-makers, and in the general public

  • Body of knowledge exists
  • Schools ignore it
  • It should be taught in design, management, but also in general education

Almost all of the problems involves systems

Systems are

  • complex
  • evolving
  • probablistic

Diffficult, because systems may not appear as wholes

  • Hard to see all at once

Issue:  systems often dispersed in space

  • May only be experienced over time
  • Or we may live in systems, seeing only parts:  hidden, gossamer systems

Natural system, information system, social system, hybrid system

Water cycle

Carbon cycle

How do water cycle and carbon cycle tie together?

Untangling messes (taming wicked problems)

  • They are observed

Humberto Maturana, Theorem #1, 1970:  Anything said is said by an observer

Stafford Beer:  a system is not something given in nature

Heinz von Foerster:  What the observer says is a decription said to another observer in a language they share, creating a connection that forms the basis for a society.

  • A system with two observers.

How should we describe systems that are complex, evolving, hidden and observed?

Churchman outlines four approaches to systems

  • efficeincy expert
  • scientist
  • humanist
  • anti-planner

Consider adding a fifth approach, a designer

Basic systems literacy:

  • vocabulary (content)
  • reading (skills of analysis)
  • writing (skills of synthesis)

Systems literacy is enriched with:

  • literature
  • history
  • connections

A vocabulary of systems (less than 150 terms, on the complexity of baseball)

Reading systems means recognizing common patterns in specific situations

  • e.g. resource flows and cycles, transform functions (processes), feedback loops, …

Consider the toilet and the thermostat, different in form and strucxture

  • They’re the same in function, both are governors

Writing systems means describing the function of systems to others, in text and diagrams

  • Text requires gymnastics
  • Pictures can help

Formalisms:

  • Donella Meadows
  • Otto Mayr

In many cases, simple concept maps are all the formalism require

  • Gowan and Novak, Learning How to Learn
  • Helping the education process
  • Evaluating what students knew, ask them to draw a diagram
  • Small formalism:  nodes (nous), links (verbs), then have subject-predicate-object

Netscape search concept map:

  • Netscape circa 1999
  • Were invited to have someone on staff work with a new group of engineers to redesign Netscape’s search service
  • Had best guy Matt, meet with engineers, came back hangdog
  • They almost threw him out, but he thought he could sit in the corner and watch
  • No one else knew anything about search, either
  • Make it a learning process, try out a concept map, interview the engineers
  • Interviewed 25 engineers
  • Sketches
  • Presented to group:  a fight broke out between groups’ engineers on how search worked
  • Matt had moved from being someone who knew nothing to someone that knew everything

As went on in practice, after leaving Netscape and setting up own business, had an engagement with Sun Microsystems to redesign the Java web site

  • Had a passing knowledge of Java
  • 150,000 pages
  • Though should know something about Java
  • Interviewed about 40 people
  • Then Lisa, the people who started the web site, said ready to meet with the distinguished engineers
  • Met with Gosling, showed messy map (same content as shown, but different form)

Heart attack concept map

Weight control concept map (which was hard to do)

Drug delivery device map:  How to create a system to allow product planners to understand the tradeoff in the building of a device that will deliver a drug

  • If the drug is more viscous, the needle needs to be wider … which means the needle needs to be thicker

Email concept map based on Henderson and Johnson

  • What a user needs to know, to use the software

These concepts are rare in the commercial practice of design

Was doing a map for company working in diabetes

  • Might have thought that they had a shared mental model:  not true

Idea isn’t new:  Model from Disney

How to acheive systems literacy?

History: HfG Ulm had courses in operations research and cybernetics in the 1960s

  • Collection of books on systems there is greater than in most design programs today

Believe that all graduate design programs should have courses in systems

Coals to Newcastle, we already do this?

  • We need to be more rigourous about this.
  • One course on systems, while we’re trying to something else, is just a drive-by.
  • Should be at least 3 semesters
  • 1. Introduction to systems including systems dynamics, regulation, requisite variety
  • 2. Second-order cybernetics:  observing systems, autopoesis, learning, ethics
  • 3. Systems for conversation:  coevolution, coordination and collaboration

Where’s the time for this?

  • Hear this from places that that have 4 or 5 courses of typography
  • … and from places that teach Verbeek and Latour

Not enough to read courses

  • Have to discuss
  • In addition, need to appreciate multiple religions

1. Capro, Meados, Ashby

2. Glanville, von Foerster, Maturila and Davila

3. …

Recommend format as seminar + studio

  • Reading and sicussion
  • Review of common patterns

Need fluency with common language

  • Immersion, practice and time
  • Reward, practice becomes habit, habit becomes a way of thinking

Conclusions:  Implications of and for observing systems

Nelson and Stolterman:  Designer need to be able to observe, describe …

Heinz von Voerster 1979:  Pask … distinguishes two orders of analysi

  • System’s purpose
  • Own purpose

Maturana 1997:  emotioning

  • Become respoinsible for what we do
  • We do not have to do all that we can imagine, we can choose

We have a responsibility to make things better

A Systems Literacy Manifesto

Presentation posted at http://presentations.dubberly.com//system_literacy.pdf

#design, #systems-thinking

2014/10/17 12:30 Peter Jones and Antony Upward, “Caring for the Future: The Systemic Design of Flourishing Enterprises”, #RSD3

@redesign @aupward second day #RSD3 “Business and Enterprise Design, Sustainability and Economic Policy” track at Relating Systems Thinking and Design 3, at AHO, Oslo, Norway

This digest was created in real-time during the meeting, based on the speaker’s presentation(s) and comments from the audience. The content should not be viewed as an official transcript of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. The digest has been made available for purposes of scholarship, posted by David Ing.

Program is at http://systemic-design.net/rsd3-2014/program/


Sustainability as a concept has been around 30 years

  • Bruntland Commission (1987)
  • Sustainable Development
  • Ecological Modernization

Time to change these, problem of the status quo

John Ehrenfeld, around flourishing

  • Sustainable development, which is meant at a moment, so that future generations can enjoy the same benefits of our middle class society
  • Can we say our current world is flourishing?
  • Others may call it thriving
  • Flourishing is not yet scientifically defined:  human and all live on the world, ideally

Ayres (1998) strong versus weak sustainability

  • Strong is close to flourishing, hard to achieve with Bruntland definition, non-substitutability of natural capital with other types of capital
  • This has created either-or, which we want to get away from
  • Want to rename away from “strongly sustainable”, which was the research title

Aim for a new business model as flourishing

  • Aim for compatibility with The Natural Step
  • Living systems theory with supply side sustainability from Timothy F.H. Allen, Joseph Tainter and Hoekstra

The Flourishing Enterprise, sketched in the car

  • Need a new word for stakeholders, could use some help:  community of participants and/or advocates
  • People who have a stake in flourishing

There are plenty of more sustainable and less sustainable business models

  • Sustainable product-service systems (Vezzoli)
  • Dematerialized product-services
  • Circular economy / Supply-waste ecosystems
  • Collaborative consumption
  • Public-private incentive models
  • Regional mutualism

Best:  Unilever, Patagonia, Interface Carpets

Osterwalder and Pigneur, Business model canvas

  • Ontology in dissertation
  • Then design work
  • Big hit in startups
  • But no environmental impact model, no supply chain impacts

Antony Upward’s research:

  • 1. Understand natural and social science of sustainability
  • 2. Ontology of Strong Sustnaable business models
  • 3. Codesigned a Strong Sustainable Business Model Canvas:  tested in workshops

Revise definition of business model

  • Necessary but not sufficient:  rationale of how an org creates, delivers and captures value [in monetary terms]
  • Value is created with satisfiers align with recipient’s world view, and destroyed when they don’t

First version:  14 questions, 9 consistent with Osterwalder

A shared value business model using the Osterwalder canvas

  • Healthcare system, patient-centered, value-oriented

Business model as a formative concept (as Claudio Ciborra might have said)

  • Robert Rosen:  Business model as an anticipatory system, works on encoding and decoding

This is being presented at the Flourish & Prosper conference this week at Case Western http://globalforumbawb.com/agenda/


Sketchnoting of Peter Jones presentation by Patricia Kambitsch at https://www.flickr.com/photos/shagdora/15369534318

image

#design, #systems-thinking

2014/10/17 12:00 Merlina Missimer, Karl-Henrik Robèrt and Göran Broman, “Lessons from the field: A first evaluation of working with the elaborated social dimension of the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development”, #RSD3

Merlina Missimer second day #RSD3 “Business and Enterprise Design, Sustainability and Economic Policy” track at Relating Systems Thinking and Design 3, at AHO, Oslo, Norway

This digest was created in real-time during the meeting, based on the speaker’s presentation(s) and comments from the audience. The content should not be viewed as an official transcript of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. The digest has been made available for purposes of scholarship, posted by David Ing.

Program is at http://systemic-design.net/rsd3-2014/program/


Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development, Karlskrona, Sweden

Conceptual framework around social sustainability, and first feedback from prototype

Wicked problems

  • Unsustainable behavior is deeply embedded in systems
  • Sustainability science as a science of design (Miller 2011)

Framework for strategic sustainable development

  • Created 20 years ago
  • Moving from silos to wider perspective
  • 20-year consensus and peer review

To plan in complex systems, 5 levels:

  • System:  overall functioning
  • Success: definition of objectives
  • Strategic guidelines:  logical guidlines
  • Action: concrete
  • Tools

Can use purpose to guide system boundaries:

  • There’s a lot of information, can use robust definition and purpose

Can also use backcasting, start with the end in mind

Sustainability is only relevant as a result humanity’s unsustainability

Sustainability == not systematically degrading ecological and social system

  • Identify mechanisms of degradation / destruction
  • Cluster with “nots”
  • Create sustainability priciples as constraints for re-design

Principles create boundary conditions that enable the space on the inside

Two systems are ecological and social:

  • Believe that we can use science to undermine

Version of sustainability principles:  3 ecological, 1 social

Approach has been tested in many companies and municipalities

Focus in this research is on social dimension, which has been underdeveloped

Design research methodology to understand current state and see what’s happeningx

  • Phase 1:  Gathering
  • Phase 2:  Try to build theory for social sustainability principles
  • Phase 3:  Evaluation

Success:  level of scientific rigor, and viability of use/usefulness

Workshops in three countries

  • Present
  • Apply
  • Reflect

Prototype:

  • Social system as complex adaptive systems
  • Functioning around self-organization, learning, diversity, trust, common meaning

How to translate into principles?

Started with trust

  • How to undermine trust?
  • Then check against other principles

Integrity:  not doing harm to others

Systemic barriers to influence:  being able to shape systems that individuals are part of

  • Link between individual and collective

Competence:  safeguarding of individuals

  • Themes around trust and trustworthiness

Impartiality

Meaning:  systems need to have a purpose

5 years of research lead to 5 years of social sustainability principles

Evaluation with prototypes:  how do practitioners respond to this?

  • 2 practitioners had already used the new approach, thought that new principles were intuitive, although some unease with new
  • Question:  how to work with it?
  • Non-seniors less comfortable, not easy, too complex, wanted a clearer narrative

Elaboration of Sustainability PrinciplesElaboration of Sustainability Principles at http://www.alliance-ssd.org/elaboration-of-sustainability-principles/

#design, #systems-thinking

2014/10/17 11:30 Alex Ryan and Michael Dila, “Disruptive Innovation Reframed: Insurgent Design for Systemic Transformation”, #RSD3

@DrAlexRyan @michaeldila second day #RSD3 “Business and Enterprise Design, Sustainability and Economic Policy” track at Relating Systems Thinking and Design 3, at AHO, Oslo, Norway

This digest was created in real-time during the meeting, based on the speaker’s presentation(s) and comments from the audience. The content should not be viewed as an official transcript of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. The digest has been made available for purposes of scholarship, posted by David Ing.

Program is at http://systemic-design.net/rsd3-2014/program/


Start with disruptive innovations and sustaining innovations, from Clayton Christensen

Disruption of the music industry

  • IXI prototype 1979, 3.5 minutes of digital music storage, compared to Sony Discman
  • But later, we now the story

Design thinking is different from traditional management

  • Traditional management –> design thinking
  • Rationality, objectivity –> subjective experience

(Disruptions from Michael Dila)

[Michael Dila]

21st century bookended by 2 events 10 years apart

  • September 11
  • Occupy Wall Street

Think of both as successful designs

  • Relationship beteween design and insurgency

Roger Martin:  Design Thinking comes to the U.S. Army

  • Then business should take it seriously?

U.S. Army taking design thinking, to deal with things that hadn’t dealt with before

  • Introduced to Alex Ryan

Sacred cows:

  • Michael Porter (Harvard)
  • Clayton Christensen (Harvard)

Five forces is a bankrupt model

The study of disk drives isn’t disruptive

  • Open source software movement is disruptive
  • Not that it disrupts the cost structure, but that it enables new relations of power, it makes new behaviours possible, and ways of doing things differently

Music industry is a well-used example

  • Napster as the beginning, file sharing as a certain kind of insurgency
  • But Napster is eventually framed by the establishment as hooligans
  • An industry effort to criminalize
  • Then Bittorrent comes along, with a less critical agenda
  • Don’t think of this as file sharing, think of it as arming
  • The Pirate Bay, as equivalent to the African National Congress, an organized insurgency
  • Disruption is more than economics
  • At the end, a legitimate vendor coming in
  • iTunes as the reconstituted ANC, post-insurgency

Growth and drive by Google

What kinds of new behaviours are possible?

Uber:  controversial example of a business that is disrupting unwelcomed change in politics of cities, as well as economic relations in business

  • Inescapable that users who are responsible for growth want something that Uber enables
  • Need to grapple with collective behaviour, and not simply the new framework that is the disruptive force

Similarly with AirBnB

Next:  Bitcoin

Systemic implications:

  • Current theory of disruptive innovation doesn’t have ideas of power, narrow view
  • We don’t see the fuller implications

Disruption as irreversible, can’t unring a bell

Killer business models: profit model at scale, changing over time, leading to be harmful to own customers

  • Tobacco an easy model
  • Others becoming parasitic

Need to disrupt some systems

  • How to use design to disrupt the scale?

Disruption could emerge between customers, between societies, insurgents coming along

Want to design for healthy ecosystems, at that scale

  • There’s a role for insurgents, to catalyze

Sketchnoting of Alex Ryan and Michael Dila presentation by Patricia Kambitsch at https://www.flickr.com/photos/shagdora/14934910614
image

#design, #systems-thinking

2014/10/17 10:45 Carolin Kowollik and Wolfgang Jonas, “Clashing cultures – a systemic examination of onboard and destination cultures in cruise tourism”, #RSD3

Carolin Kowollik and Wolfgang Jonas, second day #RSD3 “Business and Enterprise Design, Sustainability and Economic Policy” track at Relating Systems Thinking and Design 3, at AHO, Oslo, Norway

This digest was created in real-time during the meeting, based on the speaker’s presentation(s) and comments from the audience. The content should not be viewed as an official transcript of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. The digest has been made available for purposes of scholarship, posted by David Ing.

Program is at http://systemic-design.net/rsd3-2014/program/


Institut fur Transportation Design

  • Background in user centered design, and futures

In Venice, tourism a big issue

  • Lots of cruise ships in port
  • Passenger carrying capacity:  buses, trash, toilets
  • Venetians have to move out of town if don’t work in hotel, etc.
  • Venice turning into a Disneyland

Venetian protests:  No Grandi Navi, movement against cruise ships in Venice

  • Not socially sustainable

Other possibilities?

Sensitivity modelling:  Frederic Vester 2002, The Art of Interconnected Thinking

  • Mathematical
  • Doesn’t produce solutions, provides understanding

Systems thinking, defining variables

  • 1. Stakeholders
  • 2. Actions
  • 3. Space
  • 4. Conditions

Cross-impact analysis

  • Strength of influence across variables (0 == none; 3 == strong)
  • Active sum, passive sum
  • Plot:  active, critical, reactive, buffering

Interest in active and critical variables

  • Experience of cruise tourists can be bad or good
  • Respective of cruise tourists can be low or high
  • Size and number of cruise ships can be small and few, or big and many
  • Share of local economy
  • Local policy strength
  • Consumer culture

Effect system:

  • Strong influences shown, with reinforcing effects

Analyzing cultural identity of a cruise

  • Ways of traveling, ways of socializing, ways of housing, ways of working and learning, ways of dining, ways of recreation
  • Methods:  cultural probes, with log books

Sketchnoting of Carolin Kowollik presentation by Patricia Kambitsch at https://www.flickr.com/photos/shagdora/15556508662/
image

#design, #systems-thinking

2014/10/17 09:50  Ian Percy and Brita Nielsen, “Sustainable integration in Norway: A social system’s design approach”, #RSD3

Ian Percy, second day #RSD3 “Sustainability, policy & business” track at Relating Systems Thinking and Design 3, at AHO, Oslo, Norway

This digest was created in real-time during the meeting, based on the speaker’s presentation(s) and comments from the audience. The content should not be viewed as an official transcript of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. The digest has been made available for purposes of scholarship, posted by David Ing.

Program is at http://systemic-design.net/rsd3-2014/program/


Now a Norwegian bureaucrat (refugee consultant), Norwegian Labour and Welfare

Statistics on Norway:  immigration

  • 20% is refugees
  • Criticisms of government

Before 2003, refugees ad hoc

  • Some learn Norwegian, others get little
  • 2003 law
  • 2006 Directorate of Integration and Diversity to ensure municipalities following law, but it’s free for municipalities to take refugees
  • In larger cities, now voluntary to get own apartments

Now 5000+ people waiting in refugee centres

Currently working in Austrheim Kommune

Job as refugee consultant, have to convince municipality to take refugees, communications, settle into apartments, etc.

Budget 19M kroner from oil companies, 8M kroner from government

  • Some conflicts:  teachers have 45-minute hours, work is 50-minute hours

What does integration mean?

Integration program:  adult education, language, work integration

Challenge in settlement predictability

  • 6 months rather than 3 to 5 year plan
  • Different ways of using forms

11 interviews:

  • Municipality with decision-making power (politicians)
  • External actors

Graphic elicitation tools (Bagnoli 2009)

  • Small pieces of paper
  • Diagrams showed which parts of the system were relevant for whom and what

(Series of system maps from interviews)

Reflections:

  • Less skepticism and doubt than expected
  • “They get the information they should”
  • Absence of stated economic incentive
  • Many department though of selfs as island
  • Main cleavage between leadership and policy

Dismal gigamap

Conclusion:

  • Clear need for systemic thinking
  • Gap in understanding both nationally and municipality
  • Could have participatory design process

Opportunities:

  • Time constraints
  • More interviews:  real refugees, direct implementers

Austrheim kommuneRefugees and the Rufugee Service at https://www.austrheim.kommune.no/flyktningar.303548.nn.html

#design, #systems-thinking

2014/10/17 09:50  Ryan Church, Ksenia Benifand and Nihal Ahmed, “Reimagining the Future: The Biomimetic Economy”, #RSD3

@BiomeDesign @KBenifand @iNihalAhmed second day #RSD3 “Sustainability, policy & business” track at Relating Systems Thinking and Design 3, at AHO, Oslo, Norway

This digest was created in real-time during the meeting, based on the speaker’s presentation(s) and comments from the audience. The content should not be viewed as an official transcript of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. The digest has been made available for purposes of scholarship, posted by David Ing.

Program is at http://systemic-design.net/rsd3-2014/program/


All Master’s of Design students at OCAD U.

Economy within an ecology

Biomimicry: emulate nature’s processes

  • Biology has been around longer than human beings
  • Information (proteins) to give form

Research purpose:

  • Explore how biomimicry can be applied to economy
  • Businesses today poorly prepared to deal with unexpected

Gigamap

  • A learning tool for companies
  • Swim from bottom, up to top

http://www.biome-design.com/portfolio/the-g-project

Design principles

Three horizons

Type I system:  rapid growth system, with crash

  • Like dandelion

Type II system: panarchy

Type III system:  shared futures infinity loop

  • Old growth forests

Kalundborg Ecopark

  • Closed loop systems
  • Creating value out of waste

Circular economy

  • Thinking about material flow, production and patterns of consumption

Today, a lot of underutilized assets

  • Ellen MacArthur Foundation sees $1 trillion in business opportunities, in study by McKinsey

Diverse economies, from Jane Jacobs, The Nature of Economies

  • One strategy is import stretching:  new value added to an existing ood or import, turned into something new for export
  • Lease Jeans, in Germany:  after a year with jeans, can (i) keep it, (ii) switch, or (iii) send it back where it will be used for new clothing.
  • Another strategy:  import replacement:  making things locally
  • Atlantic Leather, in Iceland, using fish scales for fashion forward shoes and clothing

Next:

  • Rethinking product design and production
  • Fostering collaborative relationship

Reimagining the Future: The Biomimetic Economy

#design, #systems-thinking

2014/10/17 09:00 Michael Hensel, “Ecologies, Architectures, Nation States and Other Borderline Cases: A Please for A Massive Paradigm Change”, #RSD3

Michael Hensel, second day plenary at #RSD3 Relating Systems Thinking and Design 3, at AHO, Oslo, Norway

This digest was created in real-time during the meeting, based on the speaker’s presentation(s) and comments from the audience. The content should not be viewed as an official transcript of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. The digest has been made available for purposes of scholarship, posted by David Ing.

Program is at http://systemic-design.net/rsd3-2014/program/


An attempt to take on systems boundaries issues

  • In order to tackle these conditions, one tests the notion of boundaries, and beyond

Professional work rests on boundaries:  what’s in, what’s out

Design method:  Gigamapping the way out, and the long trajectory of time

Seems to lead to more inclusive

In 2008, German zoologist:  Stable Disequilibria, The Ecology of the Future

  • Critique of nature preservation
  • Dynamic equilibria
  • Today, elephant count and vegetation
  • Habitat fluctuation

Contrast of approach that gives primacy to process, rather than a single moment in town

  • Process means change over time, dynamic equilibria
  • Elephants could disappear
  • Then profound question:  should human intervention be allowed?
  • Hands-off, laissez faire to natural processes?
  • Counter to current human-dominated environment

Could keep some remnants, e.g. zoo

  • Captivity syndrome
  • Are humans safe?

Consider ADHD

  • In medicine, it’s a neuro-psychiatric condition
  • Normally managed with counselling, lifestyle changes
  • Treatment controversial since 1970s:  cost, use of medication in treatment
  • ADHD as a collection of symptoms, not a disease?
  • The misfit, Economist:  related to neurotransmitters in brain, associated with dopamine
  • Why are such receptors still in existence?
  • What constitutes inappropriate behaviour, and the circumstances?
  • ADHD can’t focus unless they receive continuous reward, and shift across projects
  • Hypothesis:  ADHD help hunter-gathers, but city dwelling civilization haven’t allowed genetic catch-up
  • Study of nomads in Kenya shows better nourished have exploratory behaviour, better in migratory behaviour
  • People with ADHD useful in a different evolutionary path
  • Being a misfit may become more important

Human-dominated transformation of environment may outpace humans

For whom are we designing?

Concept of normalism is an outline in architecture

  • Late 1960s architectural theory
  • Banham 1969, The Architecture as a Well-tempered Environment looks at tent, like lunar module
  • Also fire
  • Power-oriented architecture, with quasi-hermetically sealed environments
  • Technology produces environment
  • Material surfaces
  • Technology gave way to the generic, or excessively expression of lifestyle

Before these developments, different

  • Architects should now also include environment? Conflict?

Nation-state: geographic area, political legitimacy

  • Dominant form of world organization
  • Nationalism with fragmentation, where parts of countries want to go it alone
  • Formation of Islam state, arbitrary boundaries lead to conflict, but will redrawing also lead to conflict?

Alternative to nation-state?  World government? Global networks?

  • Nation state as an anachronism?
  • Societies may already be going through transition
  • Temporary situations to historical situations?

Which objectives require more complex approaches to design?

  • Systems thinking suggests not moving lower level designs forward

Any mapping of processes become secondary to intuiting larger

  • Targets are transforming

Systems thinking and design are already intertwined

  • If not, something is amiss

Sketchnoting of Michael Hensel presentation by Patricia Kambitsch at https://www.flickr.com/photos/shagdora/15556508662

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Michael Hensel, AHO

#design, #systems-thinking