2015/07/09 09:00 Chris Kennedy, “Industrial Ecology and Cities”, ISIE, U. Surrey

Plenary talk by Chris Kennedy, U. of Toronto, at “Taking Stock of Industrial Ecology”, 8th Biennial Conference of the International Society for Industrial Ecology, University of Surrey, Guildford, July 7-10, 2015

This digest was created in real-time during the meeting, based on the speaker’s presentation(s) and comments from the audience. The content should not be viewed as an official transcript of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. The digest has been made available for purposes of scholarship by David Ing.

Plenary talks for ISIE 2015 are by contributors to an open access volume, Taking Stock of Industrial Ecology, available online as open access e-book from Springer in fall 2015.  See the table of contents and the Springer book description.


Chris Kennedy is Professor, Civil Engineering at the U. of Toronto, and President of the International Society for Industrial Ecology

[Chris Kennedy]

Minnesota Experimental City 1966-1973

  • No waste
  • Excluding industry
  • Guideway for cars
  • Water recycled
  • Buildings modular that could be reused
  • Fossil-fuel-free, maybe nuclear (not clear)
  • Otto Silhart, supported by vp Hubert Humphrey, Buckminister Fuller
  • Athelstan Spilhaus, South Africa, Woods Hole, dean of U. Minnesota Institute of Technology, comic strip, president of AAAS (1968 article in Science)
  • Waste is a something we don’t know how to use yet
  • Industrial symbiosis
  • None of this was done, came to nothing, a utopian vision
  • For 250,000 people, no more, no less
  • 1971 Minnesota governor created a center for tis

Looking back on IE for work on cities

  • Gradel and Allenby 1995 two paragraphs

Ernie Lowe’s book:  Discovering Industrial Ecology

  • Was talking with urban planners

Allenby 1999:  “sustainable communities” yet science has yet to understand meaning

Andrews 2002:  prescriptive IE … until grand visions tempered .. they will be a poor basis for public decisions

Scopus search:  IE and cities, city, urban or urbanization

  • Gradual increase in JIE keyword to 2006
  • Then from 2007 increase in title-abstract-keyword
  • 212 papers, remove some in industrial eco parks just happening to be in cities

Urban metabolism emerged as research separate from industrial metabolism

  • Both are parts of socio-economic metabolism

Scopus study:  urban metabolism or metabolism of cities

  • Wolman 1965 off chart, then 1994, and 1999 start rise
  • Human Studies 1999

Future directions:

  • Understand the environment impact of the urban metabolism and pursue plans to reduce them
  • Similar to Experimental Cities, but needs to be tempered

Electric City:

  • Decarbonization, electric vehicles
  • Making cities resilient to climate change

Key threshold for electrification associated with carbon intensity of electric, different below 600 than above 60

Urban scale industrial symbiosis, e.g. van Berkel Fujita Hashimoto Fujii

Bristow & Kennedy, JIE 2015 doi:10.1111/jiec.12239 :  What would rebound effect be?

  • Urbanization leads to increased energy use
  • If we build more cities, will we increase energy use?

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2015/07/08 09:45 Moriguchi and Hashimoto, “Material Flow Analysis and Waste Management”, ISIE, U. Surrey

Plenary talk of Yuichi Moriguchi and Seiji Hashimoto, at “Taking Stock of Industrial Ecology”, 8th Biennial Conference of the International Society for Industrial Ecology, University of Surrey, Guildford, July 7-10, 2015

This digest was created in real-time during the meeting, based on the speaker’s presentation(s) and comments from the audience. The content should not be viewed as an official transcript of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. The digest has been made available for purposes of scholarship by David Ing.

Plenary talks for ISIE 2015 are by contributors to an open access volume, Taking Stock of Industrial Ecology, available online as open access e-book from Springer in fall 2015.  See the table of contents and the Springer book description.


Yuichi Moriguchi is Professor of Urban Resource Management, in the Department of Urban Engineering, University of Tokyo.

Seiji Hashimoto is Professor at Ritsumeikan University, and a Senior Researcher at National Institute for Environmental Studies.

Overview of progress on economy-wide Material Flow Accounting, Fischer

Books by Robert Ayres

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2015/07/08 10:10 Jeroen Guinée, “Past, Present and Future of Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment”, ISIE, U. Surrey

Plenary talk by Jeroen Guinée, Leiden University at “Taking Stock of Industrial Ecology”, 8th Biennial Conference of the International Society for Industrial Ecology, University of Surrey, Guildford, July 7-10, 2015

This digest was created in real-time during the meeting, based on the speaker’s presentation(s) and comments from the audience. The content should not be viewed as an official transcript of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. The digest has been made available for purposes of scholarship by David Ing.

Plenary talks for ISIE 2015 are by contributors to an open access volume, Taking Stock of Industrial Ecology, available online as open access e-book from Springer in fall 2015.  See the table of contents and the Springer book description.


Jeroen Guinée is Senior researcher at Universiteit Leiden, Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML)

[Jeroen Guinée]

25 years in Leiden (NL):  SimaPro

LCA: Past, present and Future, Environ Sci Technol 2011 46

  • LCA added economic and social analysis

Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (the book chapter)

  • Past:  1987, 2007, conception of LCSA; 2007-2010: debates on what exactly is LCSA?
  • Present 2010-2015:  trial and error
  • Future:  2016-onwards: main challenges

Past:

  • LCSA from Zhou et al. 2006/2007, where LCSA = LCA + LCC (which they didn’t use through the article), where LCC == carbon footprint
  • Klopffer & Remmer 2007:  LCSA = LCA + LCC + SLCA
  • Zamagni 209, Guienee 2011 expanded on above

TBL ++

  • Broadening of impacts based on Triple Bottom Line

Present, literature search

  • 23/30 broadening impacts
  • 11/30 broading analysis
  • 10/30 deepening

Future

  • Broadening of impacts:  Proper qualitative and practical SLCA indicators
  • Broadening level of analysis:  Scenarios, emerging technology systems, products, futures
  • Deepending:  Dealing with uncertainties and rebound effects

Modes of LCA / LCSA:

  • Attributional
  • Back-casting
  • Consequential
  • Decision or Dynamic
  • Exergy

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2015/07/08 09:45 Angela Druckman, “Kicking the Habit? Understanding the Drivers of Household Carbon Dependency”, ISIE, U. Surrey

Plenary talk by Angela Druckman,  @CES_Surrey, at “Taking Stock of Industrial Ecology”, 8th Biennial Conference of the International Society for Industrial Ecology, University of Surrey, Guildford, July 7-10, 2015

This digest was created in real-time during the meeting, based on the speaker’s presentation(s) and comments from the audience. The content should not be viewed as an official transcript of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. The digest has been made available for purposes of scholarship by David Ing.

Plenary talks for ISIE 2015 are by contributors to an open access volume, Taking Stock of Industrial Ecology, available online as open access e-book from Springer in fall 2015.  See the table of contents and the Springer book description.


Angela Druckman is Senior Lecturer in Sustainable Energy and Climate Change Mitigation, University of Surrey, and Associate at the Sustainable Lifestyles Research Group

[Angela Druckman]

How carbon is embedded into daily household life

UK households:

  • Embedded emissions 66% (e.g things we buy, food, clothes)
  • Direct missions from personal travel 10%
  • Direct emissions from household energy use 24%

Carbon use by use:

  • Recreation and leisure 27%
  • Food and catering 24%

Time use of carbon:

  • Can’t manufacture more time, so what swapping is done?
  • What should be encouraged?
  • Carbon emissions per hour
  • Sleep and rest at 9 hours per day is really low carbon
  • Commuting at .3 hours per day is really intensive
  • Other household emissions of 5 hours per day aren’t a focus
  • In leisure time, spending time with friends requiring travel is high carbon

Have money, so either will spend or save it:  rebound effect

  • Fuel efficient car with lower emissions
  • but then lower petrol bills causes direct rebound
  • Invest money saved into a holiday of spain is indirect rebound
  • Embodied energy in the car itself?

Rebound effect of over 100% means emissions increased — is a backfire!

Rebound effects estimates

  • Domestic use 0-32%
  • Vehicle fuel use 25%-65%
  • Reducing food use sometimes backfires.

Should try to minimize rebound

  • Encourge green investment
  • Shift pattern of expenditures to lower GHG

Which activities are fun and low carbon?

  • Social activities
  • Physical activities
  • Goal orientated activities (in the flow, Csikszentmihalyi 2006)
  • Volunteering
  • Being close to nature

Changing time use will change patterns of consumption, which can change patterns of production

  • Number of hours we work?  Reduce working time?

Work time reduction

  • Need special measures for low income household
  • Outcomes should be a scale effect that reduces incomes, expenditures and consumption
  • Compositional effect, changes in time and expenditure budgets
  • Increased wellbeing
  • Reduced unemployment and inequalities

Some evidence (Sweden)

Conclusion

  • Need to rethink the work-spend economy
  • Focus on win-win

[Questions]

Outsource? Wash your own dog, or take to groomer?

  • What type of activities?
  • How many hours are you working?

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2015/07/08 09:25 Thomas Wiedmann, “Intercity Carbon Footprint Networks”, ISIE, U. Surrey

Plenary talk by Thomas Wiedmann, UNSW at  “Taking Stock of Industrial Ecology”, 8th Biennial Conference of the International Society for Industrial Ecology, University of Surrey, Guildford, July 7-10, 2015

This digest was created in real-time during the meeting, based on the speaker’s presentation(s) and comments from the audience. The content should not be viewed as an official transcript of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. The digest has been made available for purposes of scholarship by David Ing.

Plenary talks for ISIE 2015 are by contributors to an open access volume, Taking Stock of Industrial Ecology, available online as open access e-book from Springer in fall 2015.  See the table of contents and the Springer book description.


Tommy Wiedmann is Associate Professor of Sustainability Research, University of New South Wales, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering

[Thomas Widemann]

Presentation different from book chapter that was presented last year

53% of people life in urban areas, 2 billion new urban residents mean that need to build 100 new cities with 1 million residents each year, or two every week between now and 2035

DI_20150708 032844 ISIE plenary ThomasWiedmann GHG cities

Greenhouse Gases:

  • Territorial is only one part (which is putting a dome over part of a city)
  • Cities draw power from hinterlands, need to appreciate if looking at metabolism

Publications:  PAS 2070:2013

Scope 1:  Within cities

  • Scope 2: With grid-supplied electricity
  • Scope 3: Include outside the city boundaries

DI_20150708 033114 ISIE plenary ThomasWiedmann MRIO

To account in a systematic way, want an account of all emissions

  • MRIO: Nested Carbon accounting Framework

DI_20150708 033140 ISIE plenary ThomasWiedmann CarbonMap

Calculate a carbon map

  • Melbourne carbon map — from Wiedmann, Chen and Barrett 2015, The Concept of City Carbon Maps

DI_20150708 033705 ISIE plenary ThomasWiedmann CityCarbonNetworks

Industrial Ecology Virtual Lab – http://www.ielab.info http://www.isa.org.usyd.edu.au/ielab/ielab.shtml

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2015/07/08 09:05 Stefan Pauliuk, “Prospective Models of Society’s Future Metabolism”, ISIE, U. Surrey

University of Surrey, Guildford, July 7-10, 2015

This digest was created in real-time during the meeting, based on the speaker’s presentation(s) and comments from the audience. The content should not be viewed as an official transcript of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. The digest has been made available for purposes of scholarship by David Ing.

Plenary talks for ISIE 2015 are by contributors to an open access volume, Taking Stock of Industrial Ecology, available online as open access e-book from Springer in fall 2015.  See the table of contents and the Springer book description.


Introduction by Jacquetta Lee, Director of the Practitioner Doctorate Programme in Sustainability, U. Surrey

Stefan Pauliuk is post-doctoral fellow, Industrial Ecology Programme, NTNU

DI_20150708 032520 ISIE plenary StefanPauliuk

[Stefan Pauliuk]

Need to transform

  • What do we need to scale up, moving from unsustainable to more sustainable?

Adopt a transformation approach, but need to model a different scale

  • Combining three approachs is called prospective (forward-looking) assessment of transformation strategies

DI_20150708 030913 ISIE plenary StefanPauliuk SystemsApproach

Prospective modeling adds modeling principles rather than specific methods

DI_20150708 030956 ISIE plenary StefanPauliuk ProspectiveModellingFutureMetabolism

Trace back to Dan Muller [Department of Energy and Process Engineering, NTNU]

  • Trace concrete and timber

Then Hatayama, Daigo, Matsuno, Adachi (2010)

DI_20150708 031141 ISIE plenary StefanPauliuk Milford

Updated to Milford, Pauliuk, 2014

  • Scale up model to global scale, find mitigation potential

Similar work by Liu, Band and Muller 2012 on aluminum, can go down to alloy

  • Lovik Moderesi and Muller 2014

Eishkaki and Graedel 2013 JCP, looking at critical materials, may find some supply constraints

Busch, Steinberger Dawson 2014: conflict between low carbon and circular economy

Northey, Mohr, Mudd 2014 RCT:  How could existing copper resources be mined in the future

I/O-based techniques back to Leontieff and Duchin 1986 Future Impact of Automation

  • De Konging Huppes Tukker 2015

Supply curve approach:  Nakamura, Kondo, Kagawa 2014 MaTrace

LCA:  Hertwich, Gibon, Bouman 2015 PNAS:  Take energy supply from scenarios and improvements, what is the impact in future?

Prospective modelling in IE builds on MFA I/O and attributional LCA

  • Differentiate between LCA and prospective modeling
  • Expectations high, so believe the direction could be scenario analysis to model transformation of society’s metabolism is suitable

Two scopes:  with IE, and beyond

  • Assess bundles of mitigation and adaptation strategies
  • Trend:  convergence of methods, more consistent data, better reproducibility of results

DI_20150708 032048 ISIE plenary StefanPauliuk connect

Connect to other fields?

  • IE is considered small, need to link to energy system models, climate models, prospective economic models, land use and coverage models
  • Integrated assessment modelling

DI_20150708 032152 ISIE plenary StefanPauliuk prospective IE IAMs

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2015/07/05 10:35 Plenary panel, “Industrial Experiences of Industrial Ecology”, ISIE, U. Surrey

Plenary panel talks by Dr. Sarah Sim, Unilever; Kieran Mayers, Sony; Kirstie McIntyre, HP, at “Taking Stock of Industrial Ecology”, 8th Biennial Conference of the International Society for Industrial Ecology, University of Surrey, Guildford, July 7-10, 2015

This digest was created in real-time during the meeting, based on the speaker’s presentation(s) and comments from the audience. The content should not be viewed as an official transcript of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. The digest has been made available for purposes of scholarship by David Ing.

Plenary talks for ISIE 2015 are by contributors to an open access volume, Taking Stock of Industrial Ecology, available online as open access e-book from Springer in fall 2015.  See the table of contents and the Springer book description.


Panel Discussion A: Industrial Experiences of Industrial Ecology

  • [Alternate panel discussion B was: Policy Applications of Industrial Ecology]

Moderated by Chris France, Director of Engineering Doctorate in Engineering Technology, Centre for Environmental Strategy, University Surrey

  • Industry, with academics focusing on other

Sarah Sim, “The Role of Science in Shaping Sustainable Business”

[Sarah Sim, Unilever]

Unilever: home care, personal care, food

Approach to science over past 20 years

  • Life Cycle Assessment
  • Footprint over 2000 products annually, on water
  • Growing business with environmental impact

Driving

  • Forestry
  • Sustainable
  • Water
  • Into systems thinking, rather than portfolio thinking

Systems thinking

  • Irreversibility
  • Corporate decisions in broader perspective
  • Some predictive, not taken into LCA so far
  • 1. Scale, e.g. bio-based
  • 2. Spatial recognition
  • 3. ?

Systems thinking

  • Micro level assessments
  • New macro level assessments

Planetary boundary relevance to Unilever

  • Held workshop last fall

Kieran Mayers, Practical implications of product-based environmental legislation

[Kieran Mayers, Sony Computer Entertainment]

Worked in IBM, HP, Now in Sony

Graduated in environment degree from Surrey, then Yale

Where are we now?

  • In 1990s, environmental solutions were focused on end of pipe
  • Then read Graedel’s book, on life cycle
  • Requires new approaches new skill
  • Moving forward difficult
  • Supply chains are difficult, hard to influence whole
  • Technology changing quickly
  • Practically, hard to move forward

Life cycle management is no longer optional, mandated

  • 1. Production, limit hazardous substances, e.g. 36 restrictions, are finding 50% of companies faile
  • 2. Use, mandatory standby power limits, auto power down; e.g. voluntary consumption
  • 3. End-of-life:  Now pay about 1-2 million Euros for Playstations

Skills:

  • Chemistry and material use
  • Power testing
  • Stock management
  • Business management, e.g. SAP
  • Products
  • Stakeholder engagement
  • Chimcal analysis
  • Supply chain anagement
  • Consumer behaviour
  • Recycling and wast emanagement

Only 3 of above is covered in today’s curriculum

We know about diagnosis, but challenged about treatment

Kirstie McIntyre, Circular Economy @HP

[Kirstie McIntrye, HP]

One of 320,000 HP employees

Circular economy understood/internalized at HP

  • Bringing into products, services, customers

Global market trends, some world changes, some resource changes, moving at speed and scale

  • Netflix as access over ownership:  few buy DVDs today
  • Building relationships with customers:  customers who come back are cheaper than getting new customers; moving from transactional sales to repeat relationships
  • Big data and analytics to tailor offerings
  • Extended corporate responsibilities: not enough to comply with regulation, have to take it further, customers should know where materials come from, no child labour, transparent supply chain; can repair/refurbish
  • Brand loyalty
  • Growth of the middle class, particularly in BRICS: won’t be able to buy the raw materials that those people can purchase, service not just to large companies and governments but instead individuals

Where does HP focus?

  • First IT company to publish carbon footprint
  • Shows where we need to focus
  • Most is around energy use of products
  • At Climate Summit conference in NY, executive said would reduce by 40% by 2020
  • Then, resource efficiency materials will become much more important

[Questions]

Diagnosis and treatment?

  • When graduating from an IE program, have skills to diagnose
  • But then product-based legislation means have to start over
  • Producing compliance schemes for responsibility
  • Track and trace across supply chain
  • Have to make it up as you go along

This community does environment assessment and methodology development.  Do companies use it, e.g. LCA was uncertainty or dynamic?

  • At Unilever, in R&D, have a center that focuses from beginning through products
  • Need to support decisions from early to late
  • Have incorporated new methodologies
  • Trying to incorporate uncertainty better
  • Want to make decisions more robust
  • Planetary boundaries, looking at operationalizing

Circular economy at scale?

  • Unilever growth agenda would mean a growth in raw materials
  • Can look for efficiencies, sustainable agriculture
  • Will have some language changes
  • From petro to chemicals
  • Where will land expansion come from?  Mitigation? Deforestation commitment?

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