Now with Ubuntu 17.04, since Ubuntu 16.04, I’ve had problems with connecting to a VPN that uses L2TP. I found a fix through a series of steps, beginning with “Enabling L2TP over IPSec on Ubuntu 16.04” | Zaid Daba’een | Aug. 22, 2016, updated Mar. 29, 2017 at http://blog.z-proj.com/enabling-l2tp-over-ipsec-on-ubuntu-16-04/ .
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:nm-l2tp/network-manager-l2tp
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install network-manager-l2tp
Trying to then configure L2TP, I found that I was missing a component. Instructions were at “Connect to L2TP over IPsec” | July 2017 at https://askubuntu.com/questions/934350/connect-to-l2tp-over-ipsec
sudo apt install network-manager-l2tp-gnome
The “VPN Connection Failed”, so I needed some diagnostics. These were found at “How can I troubleshoot ‘VPN Connection Failed’?” | Jan. 22, 2016 at https://askubuntu.com/questions/16105/how-can-i-troubleshoot-vpn-connection-failed
journalctl -u NetworkManager.service
Based on those error messages, I found that the problem could be the ciphers. A similar error was found with “Unable to connect L2TP IPSec VPN from ubuntu 16.04 [duplicate]” | March 30, 2017 at https://askubuntu.com/questions/904217/unable-to-connect-l2tp-ipsec-vpn-from-ubuntu-16-04
$ sudo systemctl stop strongswan
$ sudo ike-scan .com
Ike-scan returned a result similar to that example, So, in the advanced section of the IPsec dialog box, I added:
Phase1 Algorithms : 3des-sha1-modp1024
Phase2 Algorithms : 3des-sha1
Repartitioning disk with Ubuntu 16.04 GParted fails; Kubuntu 17.04 KDE Partition Manager works.
Booting my Thinkpad X200 from an Ubuntu 16.04 live USB key, GParted was able to successfully shrink a NTFS partition and leave unallocated space. Then, a request to either (i) shrink the existing \ EXT4 partition, or (ii) create a new empty Home EXT4 partition in the unallocated space resulted in a message:
Unable to satisfy all constraints on the partition
Following the trail of many others with the same issue, I tried Testdisk, which analyzed the partition structure. The structure was found as expected. Specifying the “primary bootable”, “primary”, and “logical” partitions seemed okay, but a “Bad Structure” warning would not be resolved unless the “Lenovo Recovery” partition was marked for deletion. This caused me to pause, as that’s the way that Windows 7 could be reinstalled to the factory state (albeit on a larger disk than the original hardware build).
As I’ve been moving over from Ubuntu 16.04 to Kubuntu 17.04, there was nothing to be lost by trying instead with a Kubuntu live USB key. Using KDE Partition Manager, the repartitioning went smoothly, without the error message from GParted that I saw over and over, for hours.
Conclusion: There’s more to Kubuntu than just a change in the Desktop Environment.
All of this effort was towards migrating the home directory into its own dedicated partition.
Replaced @Linux_Mint 16 Mate Edition with @Ubuntu 13.10 plus @Mate_Desktop to replicate the feel of Ubuntu 12.04 @Gnome Fallback, since discontinued in favour of Gnome Flashback (based on Gnome 3 Shell). Before that, I first tried superseding Ubuntu 12.04 with Ubuntu Gnome 13.10.
I’m used to having the Window List at the top of the screen, and launch panel at the bottom of the screen. This was configurable in Gnome 2 Panel but is not configurable in Gnome 3 Shell.
Linux Mint 16 Petra Mate Edition was a better choice for me than the Linux Mint 16 Petra Cinnamon Edition, as I have two drives in this laptop, and the Nemo file manager didn’t sufficiently make the “Documents” folder under “Computer” with the Linux disk sufficiently different from the “Documents” folder as a Bookmark from the Windows 7 disk. The Caja file manager on Linux Mint 16 Petra Mate Edition did make the Bookmark distinct.
However, when I failed to install Dropbox onto Linux Mint 16 Petra Mate Edition with the Caja file manager, a forum thread on “Dropbox breaks after last mint update” discouraged me from proceeding with Mint.
There’s a long thread on “Why does everyone hate Unity?” Unity has been the standard desktop provided by Canonical since 2010, and provides a bridge for Ubuntu to have a more uniform experience on tablets and smartphones. However, I’ve found that I can work faster with the Gnome 2 look-and-feel, than either Gnome 3 or Unity.
Unlike the recent criticisms that “Forcing the Modern UI on Windows 8 users was Microsoft’s biggest mistake“, Linux gives users a choice with many distributions and flavours.