Kubuntu 17.10 LaTeX textgreek.sty

Under Ubuntu 16.04, building a PDF under TeXstudio worked.  Under Kubuntu 17.10 (with pdfTeX 3.14159265-2.6-1.40.18 (TeX Live 2017/Debian)), running the same input files resulted in:

! LaTeX Error: File `textgreek.sty' not found.

These seemed like an error with reported in Feb. 2015, as “texlive-latex-extra: missing dependency – textgreek.sty requires lgrenc.def (texlive-lang-greek)“, but somehow this error was different.

A post at tex.stackexchange on “How do I install an individual package on a Linux system?” suggested instead …

Method 2:

Find and install the package through your package manager.  [….]

Ubuntu

Searching for package contents with textgreek in artful returned:

File Packages
/usr/share/doc/texlive-doc/latex/textgreek/textgreek.pdf texlive-science-doc
/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/textgreek/textgreek.sty texlive-science

So, textgreek.sty is available via apt or Synaptic, when installed with texlive-science.

Package search in artful for textgreek

Solved.

 

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#latex, #texlive, #textgreek

2017/11/07 10:15 Donna Dillenberger, “Cognitive Blockchain”, Cascon

Plenary #cascon @DonnaExplorer IBM Fellow, IBM Research, Global leader of Enterprise Systems

This digest was created in real-time during the meeting,based on the speaker’s presentation(s) and comments from the audience. The content should not be viewed as an official transcript of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. The digest has been made available for purposes of scholarship, posted by David Ing.

Intro by @mrmindel, Head of IBM Centre for Advanced Studies

[Donna Dillenberger]

Cascon 2017

What is blockchain?

  • Database gets out of sync
  • Blockchain software propogates records onto other databases
  • Why not distributed databases?  Because a distributed database is owned by a single entity
  • Blockchain means no single party controls
  • In addition, distributed database could have someone deleting record
  • Can also put smart contracts onto a blockchain:  changes data, or checks for conditions before or after commitment

Cognitive

  • Have descriptive analytics, then can create predictive analytics

IBM Global Trade Digitalization demo (powered by IBM Blockchain)

Post-presentation follow-throughs.  Some of the content may be similar to …

  • Shipment, Kenya to Rotterdam, then can click on where vessel location is
  • On the blockchain, data from IoT centers, and ports
  • As ship moves, each of point put records on the blockchain — start container tracking, commercial invoice is available, packing list is available, sensor has refrigeration
  • Blockchain analytics products geophysical map
  • Then can put on sensors, for logistics planning, e.g. weather
  • If the ship is late, how late?
  • If refrigerated, if mango aren’t good, who’s at fault?

Not just shipping from export to import countries:  documents

  • Before blockchain, paper was printed, human couriers carried on ship — 15% of the international cost, $26B
  • If a way for secure exchanges, savings in billions of dollars

When Kenyan farmer brings produce, can just use mobile phone to upload documents

  • Then Kenyan regional association can approve certificate of origin
  • Smart contracts are dictating a workflow
  • Sanitation department can add certificate onto blockchain
  • All signatures done onto blockchain
  • Then horticultural association that gave the farmer seeds, they upload a commercial invoices so that coffee can leave
  • Mombasa customs, don’t have lost or forged papers, blockchain means can’t be deleted
  • Workflow programmed by smart contract, requires all signatures

Data immutable:  health inspections, sanitation, signature of individuals

  • Then can do analytics:  where is the hold-up, e.g. waiting for sanitation certificate
  • U.S. customs is asked for this for parts of products, e.g. Ikea shipping parts to the U.S.
  • A major path for opium is in the legs of furniture
  • U.S. customs wants to know that the furniture is coming from Sweden, but the legs may come from Indonesia

Once have analytics, customer asking for blockchain data to be combined with natural language to deal with compliance

  • Financial services, 30% of cost is just meeting compliance

Cognitive Blockchain demo

  • 1. Ingest regulation
  • 2. Kick off bot
  • 3. Obtain permissions (to see records)
  • 4. Check blockchain records compliance

Australia and the Kimberley process:  to reduce conflict diamonds

  • How to get a Kimberley certificate:   download a 18-page PDF

Post-presentation follow-throughs.  Some of the content may be similar to …

Have Watson ingest the 18-page PDF

  • IBM Regulatory Analytics service
  • Already has e.g. ingest Dodd-Frank, Basel resolution
  • Want to ingest this new Kimberley document
  • Watson extracts 73 rules

Build a compliance tool, taking those rules

  • Could type in role yourself
  • Connect to the block chain:  records describing the diamond, and surface the Kimberley Certificate
  • Want bot to see when the certificate was created, but not the contents describing the diamond
  • Blockchain has 1,200,000 records, there are 857,000 permitted access — can view compliant and non-compliant … there are 113,023 records that are not compliant
  • Before, human beings would have to read ALL of the records
  • Can ask the bot, what’s common about the non-compliant records:  They came from particular countries, all in the last quarter
  • AGX has to most number of non-compliances
  • If the databot allows to see more, could see which inspectors signed off
  • Could combine with weather data, for correlations:  e.g. are all records from countries that have had drought in the last 2 years?

Cognitive and blockchain:  When records are on the blockchain, how can I validate that birth certificate is really valid?

  • Created a portable solution:  IBM’s Verifier
  • Can scan drug, wine, art, luggage … manufactured parts … DNA identification … biological cell imaging … skin tissues … water pollutants … oils, liuqids, metals … currencies, passport stamps, birth certificate
  • Can attach IBM Verifier to any cell phone
  • Two vials:  Mobil-1 5w30 and Sunoco 10w30 … could use for olive oils or champagnes

What does cognitive mean?

  • Uses deep learning, uses regression, but these are just models to mine data for insights
  • Cognitive is more than deep learning, because it leans by itself, you don’t have to describe things to it
  • It also recognizes intent, e.g. human emotions
  • e.g. hurricanes are coming in the path of this ship, which will cause a delay, so let’s divert the ship so that mangoes can arrive on time
  • Not waiting for a human to feed it data

Problems with cognitive systems, AI, and analytics in general

  • Working with data
  • 90% of effort is getting data, then transforming data
  • Have to sample correctly
  • Normalize the data
  • Then, can you trust the data?  Where is it coming from?  What is the pedigree of the data?  (Delusional Tweets of a president?)
  • e.g. drugs reacting differently for different genders, sizes and weights
  • Can you trust the model itself?
  • Academics love to download data from the Internet, what do open source libraries carry
  • Microservices:  don’t code something when you can download it
  • But in training the microservice, could have been on image of Donna, with instruction then to shut down the power grid when you see her

Effects from untrusted data:

  • Poisoned tweets, news, blogs, ads
  • Have impacted elections, Brexit
  • Say that pollutants aren’t affecting air quality
  • Sick persons classified as healthy
  • Anomalies classified as normal
  • As a responsible computer science, models are trained to the unusable:  false positives — could be in dams, electrical grids, infrastructures and autonomous systms

How could blockchain help artificial data?

Use the blockchain to train on data where we known the provenance, where the data came from

  • e.g. drug experiences are from 30-year old females

Blockchain can help AI:

  • Trust:
    • Pedigree
    • Immutability
    • Auditable
  • Confidential
    • Hyperledger Fabric — sharing with confidentiality
    • Records, Grants access rights, requests
  • Provenance
    • Traces ownership and usage across complex provenance chains

Provenance, Walmart’s Food Safety Solution Built on the IBM Blockchain Platform | IBM Blockchain | August 2017 at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SV0KXBxSoio

Post-presentation follow-throughs.  Longer version at …

  • Did this project because of food scares
  • e.g. baby formula with melamine
  • e.g. horse meat instead of beef
  • Want to predict when food while spoil, and when the ingredients aren’t quite right
  • On Walmart cognitive blockchain, didn’t have people write onto a computer, they use with existing systems
  • Interact with humans, the way that humans want to interact, not the way that computers want them to

[Questions]

As a consumer, would like to find the problem with my egg, but will have proprietary information, and then will have a choice of who can see what.  Framework?

  • Blockchain isn’t owned by one entity
  • Hyperledger has a governance policy:  will all clients be able to see information on the blockchain
  • e.g. this blockchain has Kroger, Unilever, etc. … that don’t allow to see participants
  • Bitcoin and public blockchain allow people to see all of the data, and an anonymous person can put on data:  a potential exposure to poisonous data

Provider that doesn’t reveal data (e.g. patient)?  Can break that in emergency?

  • Looking at different approaches
  • Hyperledger allows roles
  • Could say heart surgeon sees only part of data
  • Dentists can only see that part of data
  • Up to you as patient to see that
  • If hospital owns data, then could have a smart contract, if the person comes in unconscious, might enable anyone to see data
  • Ethereum, Bitcoin, don’t permit these, Hyperledger does

Concerns about data so security that the data gets lost so that no one can get to it?  Data superpower building a back door?  Blockchains growing so large so that no one can manage them?

  • There’s a difference between blockchain implementations
  • Bitcoin keeps growing
  • Linux Foundation Hyperledger Fabric, has an activity to archive blockchain
  • e.g. after financial regulation, have to keep all financial records up to 30 years, and every transaction (trades) has be recorded, has to have copies for last day, last week, last month, up to 7 years
  • Financial companies store on tape, up to petabytes, exabytes
  • If blockchain is over 50 years old, archive that
  • Superpower?  True with public data, Ethereum and Bitcoin, anyone can see that
  • But not true with all block chain
  • With Ethereum, said superpowers can’t change:  when had a problem, said would roll back … but originally, records were to be immutable
  • Hyperledge Fabric protocols:  can add more nodes, it’s one company or person compromising his node, but then others nodes push it out and don’t allow others to join
  • IBM Secure Service Container:  when the blockchain is hosted in IBM Cloud, all of its data is automatically encrypted, not by human, but by hardware that isn’t addressable by software
  • Even if U.S. government asks for key, IBM doesn’t have then
  • This is a response to Edward Snowden, who was a system administrator
  • Blockchain data so secure that it gets lost?  Don’t understand that question, will take offline

Wish you had been at this presentation?  Some of the content may be similar to …

#blockchain, #cognitive, #dillenberger, #ibm

2017/10/25 09:30 Michael Mehaffy, “Horizons of Pattern Languages: Software, Cities, Planet”, PLoP

Plenary @michaelwmehaffy Pattern Languages of Program PLoP2017

This digest was created in real-time during the meeting,based on the speaker’s presentation(s) and comments from the audience. The content should not be viewed as an official transcript of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. The digest has been made available for purposes of scholarship, posted by David Ing.

Intro by Takashi Iba

Michael Mehaffy has collaborated with Christopher Alexander from the beginning of the 1980s

  • Generative codes
  • Future pattern language
  • Urban planning

Independent consultant, appointment with Oregon State University

  • Books on urban architecture and design

Participated in the 20th PLoP conference


[Michael Mehaffy]

PLoP 2017 -- Michael Mehaffy

30,000 foot talk

Not a software person, some familiarity:

  • Programming on Cray
  • Then minicomputers with 10K
  • Early Apples in the 1970s

Got interested in electronic music

  • Architecture as frozen music
  • Led to working with Christopher Alexander

Got to scales of cities, towns, settlements

  • Now the main focus:  we’re doing badly on planning cities

Most recently been involved with Habitat III:  Sustainable urbanization

  • Some Alexanderian ideas in the document, due to community involvement

Other UN intiatiatives

  • COP21 Climate Negotation
  • Sustainable Development Goals

Institution involved with:  The Future of Places, in Stockholm

  • Focus on public space:  the spine of the city, where everything comes together
  • Access to the benefit of the public city
  • Main focus of the new urban agenda
  • The Centre for the Future of Places, KTH

Rapidly urbanizing around the globe

  • Not all bad
  • Urbanization is often fragmented

Two varieties

  • Slums
  • Market rate development — resource inefficient, greenhouse gas emissions

Have to do a better job in both cases

  • Cities can interconnect us with each other and resource
  • Connected catalytic system
  • Develop cultures and innovations, economy

Mike Batty and Peter Ferguson:

Problem:  there’s an operating system for growth that produces predictable result

  • People can protest before it’s built
  • It’s often bad
  • Degradation of a quality of life

Have to take on reforming growth

Economically unsustainable

  • Map of Houston Texas, where the global financial crisis happened, in the houses that that people had loans they couldn’t afford
  • Denver:  foreclosures, drive until you can afford
  • Challenge in managing technology
  • Ward:  A technologist, but more a person who thinks about how people work together

Techne + Logos:  the logical of making things work together

Conundrum:  The Internet

  • 20 years ago, we were excited to share information
  • What happened:  clickbait, insipid discussions, that drown out the real quality in the Internet
  • Twitter trolls
  • Also wider culture, race to the bottom, Wrestlemania with nuclear weapons
  • A serious issue: How we’re improving or not improving a constructure problem-solving approach

Edward Sapir 1920s, Culture:  Genuine and Spurious [see http://www.katarxis3.com/Sapir.htm]

  • Technological, yet cultural

Want to meet common challenges:  climate change, inequality, sustainability

Breaking down knowledge

  • NASA web site
  • Claims and counterclaims
  • Some people interested in economic impacts, benefactors
  • Creates distortion in ability to agree

Contrast to Wikipedia:

  • Page on Battle of Hastings
  • Not in dispute
  • Google search will often show Wikipedia citation as the first
  • Wikipedia used to be the butt of responses
  • Wikipedia is getting smarter, as the rest of the Internet is getting dumber
  • Wikipedia page:  Global warming conspiracy theory

Curation:

  • We need to gather up knowledge that isn’t reliable
  • Want it sufficient for shared action
  • Science and languages do this

Wiki as Pattern Language, paper workshop at PLoP 2012 [see http://www.hillside.net/plop/2013/papers/Group6/plop13_preprint_51.pdf ]

  • Ward thought of wiki not only as way to distribute patterns, but it’s a pattern language itself
  • Pattern of overlap:  Herbert Simon, The Architecture of Complexity, 1962, near-decomposability with overlap
  • Alexander, Notes on the Synthesis of Form, in semi-lattice
  • Have useful information

Notes on the synthesis of form:  mereology, parts and wholes

Mereology:  part-whole relations

A City is Not a Tree, 1965

  • Rock-paper-scissors problem

Republished article in 2016 book, with commentary

Structure of a pattern

  • Forces of a door, hinges and knob
  • Can’t just put them any other way, have to get strong forces right
  • Look at strong forces and weak forces, and can slide them around
  • If there’s some relationship, e.g. to entrance, you have a whole new pattern, e.g. room
  • Nearly-decomposable hierarchy

In architectural patterns, it’s a physical decomposition

  • It’s an evidence-based process, some things that work, some that don’t

Don Norman, The Design of Everyday Things

  • Affordances

Alexandrian form, 7 parts:  images, upward hyperlink, downward hyperlink

Another conundrum:  Why have pattern languages not been more influential in the world of the built environment?

  • Google hits:  260,000 in architecture dwarfed by the number in software

Newman and Bhat:  Multi-cellular life from a pattern language approach [see “Dynamical patterning modules: a “pattern language” for development and evolution of multicellular form” at http://doi.org/10.1387/ijdb.072481sn

  • Malfunctions of life, like cancer

Why are architects only a small portion of all pattern languages?

  • Architects are weird?
  • Defective in the built environment?
  • Something going on in technology and culture:  collaborative and management models, open source systems

Things pointed out by Jane Jacobs in 1961

  • Put finger on momentous changes

Looking at another book with Jane Jacobs compared with Christopher Alexander

  • Web as compared to hierarchy

Cities Alive, new book by Michael Mehaffy

Network science:  new discoveries

  • Certain connections are important
  • Cellular automata generating
  • Morphogenesis
  • Fractals as scale-free patterns

Seeing patterns in evolutionary history

A new urban agenda

In Portland, Sustasis Foundation

  • Met Ward during recovery of New Orleans
  • New patterns

Potential of federated wikis

  • Same idea as wiki, but it’s federated, meaning that there isn’t just one structure, can copy and clone and work in different versions, and then bring back together
  • Can adapt more locally
  • Open source peer-to-peer development
  • Allows more evolution
  • Handles quantiative data
  • Transparency of data, click through

There are some issues with fed wiki, need some innovations to make it more useful

Could take architectural patterns to the next level

Ph.D. dissertation, building scenarios on greenhouse gas

  • Can model the predictive outcomes, based on the patterns interconnecting with each other

Could use fed wiki for financial, etc.

Key remaining issues with the Pattern Language book

  • Not enough ability to customize, 253 patterns got frozen, not flexible to change, write, throw out
  • Hard to interface with web, when trapped in book form
  • Not enough information for architects, about structure

The Nature of Order was about that

  • How to operationalize the pattern language, when it comes to geometry
  • How does nature do this?
  • Nature doesn’t make a blueprint of the final state
  • It’s more like a code or recipe for growing form

Lessons:

  • We can draw from biological systems
  • Learn from traditional forms, in structures not much different

Centers

  • Can look at regions in space
  • Architectural plan, urban plan, any structure — can identify patterns
  • Sets  or systems with distinctness
  • Living systems amplify generative relationships
  • Processes of exchanging signals and nutrients

Example of face:  Penelope Cruz, can find centers that result in people thinking she’s beautiful

  • If you remove the relationships, get a strange doll-like characteristic
  • Loses its life
  • Order, underneath it, is not a living system

Structure-preserving transformations

  • Can map geometries
  • Harold Egerton’s photo of drop into a thin film of milk:  new structure happens spontaneously
  • Alexander thinks life is a strong emergent possiblity
  • Can talk about layers, scale, strong centers
  • With 15 categories, Alexander can account of almost all structural properties

Was 12, became 15

  • The last few that were added:  e.g. simplicity and inner calm
  • The properties were in the order that he thought about them

Aesthetic phenomena is our portal into the deeper universe

  • Also transformations, in boundaries
  • Can see in natural structures, and traditional architectural structures

Now in a period where we have been using simple industrial processes

  • Geometric forms have become stripped of interconnected characteristics
  • Snap-on technology
  • Standardization

This is what Jane Jacobs was talking about

Death and Life of Great American Cities

  • Still back at World’s Fair 1958

Sprawl model from CIAM Model 1938

  • Victor Gruen‘s Shopping Mall
  • Supercampuses
  • Dendritic pattern, rather than web networks
  • Problem with hierarchical structure, not being walkable

Not just physical structure, it’s process

  • Like cooking a pizza, have to have web of interconnections in great cities, that allow creating benefits
  • Have to have biological process, using stepwise processes
  • This is the essence of generative codes

As opposed to a brittle, template based approach, using segegated zoning, etc.

Relationship between bottom-up and top-down

  • More like gardening than carpentry

Thinking about all of these as strategic toolkits, to put things together

Issue is the same for software, as other domains

  • How to speed up the feedback cycles?
  • How to get better adaptive quality?  Especially for externalities, e.g. resource depletion
  • Can identify just the key elements

Ward Cunningham:  how do you generate rather than specify?

[Questions]

A lot of success in the software world, architecture has less success.  In architecture, will patterns to grow to match success

  • Do believe that.
  • Have to deal with it
  • 253 patterns have a copyright problem, now people just getting over it
  • Federated wiki:  need some barriers removed
  • In software, didn’t have the static evolutionary problem, writing in code

Curation.  Paradox between our study and inspiration from nature, and the fact that we’re part of nature.  If we’re only one system, what does curation mean?

  • We have a nested series of systems, all with the same fundamental structures
  • Then have new ways of dealing with problems
  • Used to think language …

Why use the word problem?

  • What happens naturally
  • We’re not creating new superstructures of abstraction, can do more things, e.g. create cities
  • Termites can lay down simple
  • On the other hand, human beings generate a lot of noise
  • Curation:  idea that separate the process of creating content, from the process of editing it
  • In science, have the bucket and the searchlight

Curation.  We are intentional.  There are differences in intentionality.  Half of salmon make it back.  Over time, things die.  Alexander patterns are about generating life.  What do you do about death that occurs.  Patterns of repair?

  • Accounting for death?  Have to account for death
  • It’s not a harmonious process, it is a process that creates waste
  • Jane Jacobs:  Cities have lots of issues, conflicts, because human have issues and conflicts, and people bring them.  Hope to not evolve into an age of disaster.  Hope to evolve to more complexity
  • Intentionality:  an articulation of some deeper evolutionary tendency, towards complexity
  • We want more life, more complexity
  • More deeply embedded, in the structure of things
  • More articulated teleology:  an ideal state … that gets us into trouble, but that how we plan and we plan badly sometimes

If not planning, need to do some curation?

  • Self-organization versus planning
  • It’s not versus:  planning for self-organization

Complexity theory.  Form.  Definition of the pattern as a problem-solution form is adapted to the problems evoked here?  Ways to account for the evolution of things?  Could we try to adapt a stronger definition of patterns, to insert into the natural flow of things?

  • Patterns are language-like ways of expressing our intentionality of the way we want our ways configured
  • Anti-pattern as something that the world should not look like
  • Embodied in the structure is some intentionality of not getting scalded
  • If evolves, still need the human hand to guide it
  • Design methods movement, which was started to guide good design, Alexander disowned 10 years after dissertation, need a human being to guide the process
  • It only works if you have your own life
  • Patterns express intentionality, our way of life
  • Map of the reality

Take-away:  Not emphasizing the nature of pattern language.  Build more on it.

  • In planning, moving away from a static model
  • Won’t know what it will have in the end
  • However, should have the forces right, in the most important ways
  • Human-centered

#pattern-language, #plop, #plop-2017

2017/10/21 08:35 Yodan Rofe, “The issue of ‘feeling’ as a criterion for choosing between different patterns or configurations (social and spatial)”, Purplsoc

Plenary by Yodan Rofe #purplsoc Pursuit of Pattern Languages for Societal Change http://www.purplsoc.org/conference2017/

At Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Ph.D. from U.C. Berkeley

This digest was created in real-time during the meeting,based on the speaker’s presentation(s) and comments from the audience. The content should not be viewed as an official transcript of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. The digest has been made available for purposes of scholarship, posted by David Ing.

[Arrived late, presentation was already in progress]

Purplsoc Yodan Rofe

Feeling in Alexander’s theory

  • Trying to find the next thing to do, that will make the biggest change in the feeling of the place
  • What’s the next move?
  • After you’ve decided what to do, generate alternatives — part of the method, sometimes generating an extreme amount of alternatives for the site plan, and evaluate them with feeling, to know which is a better solution

Underlying all of this, in working with groups of people, feeling is to a great degree shared

  • Each of us is different, but we may share 80-85%

When started to do Ph.D., wanted to test this out about whether people feel the same about the environment

  • Mihaly Csikszentmihaly:  one of first to study good feelings
  • Method:  experience sampling method, subjects have buzzers, when he buzzes them, they have to report what they were doing, what they felt, what was their activity
  • Developed theory:  particular conditions where people felt threatened
  • When involved in purposeful activity that challenges them, but is not outside their capacity:  flow
  • They become more involved in their selves
  • This is close to Chris Alexander’s ideas of centers
  • Looking at self as a series of centers that we gain experience over life
  • People’s happiness goes through dips in the 20s and 30s, and then grow, sometimes through adjusting expectations

Second:  Antonio Damasio‘s theory of feeling

  • Descartes’ error — and this is covered in the last book of The Nature of Order
  • The rational mind isn’t connected with the emotional mind
  • Similar to Daniel Kahneman‘s thinking fast and slow
  • Outside the realm of conscious thinking
  • Distinguishes between emotion, about the messages that the body to sends to the mind, and feeling this is reflexive in the mind
  • Feeling is not an immediate response, it’s a combination

Third:  Daniel Kahneman‘s idea of experienced utility

  • The feeling at any particular moment, at any particular time
  • Kahneman says people have problem with history and future, but are good with what they’re feeling right now
  • Measuring is simple, as simple as measuring colour, e.g. purple that looks pink, but close between the two

Developed by Russell and others:  the affective space (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PAD_emotional_state_model)

  • Two dimensions:  arousal and pleasure
  • Y-axis:  We may seek different levels of arousal depending on time of day, age, inclination — could be all over the place
  • We would want to be in joyful enthusiasm to extreme pleasure, most people wouldn’t want to be agitated distress or apethetic depression
  • X-axis:  Pleasure
  • Kahneman speaks of objective happiness
  • Over individuals, objective happiness is connected to day to day occurences, rather than large big events in life
  • Even people who won lottery or had severe disasters, they go back to where they were, in terms of tone in everyday
  • Notion of patterns is important in the way life works

In the mid-1990s, wanted to validate Alexander’s notions about feelings  [maybe see “Space and Community – The Spatial Foundations of Urban Neighborhoods: An Evaluation of Three Theories of Urban Form and Social Structure and Their Relevance to the Issue of Neighborhoods” | Yodan Rofe | 1995 | Berkeley Planning Journal at https://escholarship.org/uc/item/8691z2bp ?]

  • Show connections between what people felt, and the quality of space
  • How to use feeling maps, as a diagnosis of place
  • Like the metaphor of being a doctor

How to map feelings?

  • When come to a neighbourhood, too large to be mapped by a single person
  • Walking too far makes you tired
  • Need to make smaller areas that are walkable
  • Workshop with CNU Philadelphia, 7 areas
  • Then scientific problems:  what do you put on the map?  It could impact the decisions of the people
  • So must put buildings and big trees, e.g. garden, playing field
  • Today, might be simpler, using handheld devices, people walking around, making evaluations with GPS feeding into a GIS, although some problems because dealing with mobile may impact the feeling
  • When people make notation, will they know how to read the map — so may be better to be with them, and then could make notations, but then having a person with you changes the feeling, e.g. a woman in an unknown place might feel different with another person
  • Transfer to one map, yellow good, orange is good, red is bad, blue is very bad
  • Scale taken from The Oregon Experiment:  4-level map
  • Also tried a 5-level scale, it’s not easy for people in the 21st century and people will choose neutral, so want to force them on feeling good or bad

Golden Gate neighbourhood of north Oakland, on the edge of Berkeley

  • With urban design professionals, different from residents
  • Try to coordinate feelings with places
  • Then, how to improve neighbourhood feelings
  • Put a feelings survey in all of the mailboxes, got 53 response of 47 usable
  • Area that was mapped enough for sufficient were in the southwest towards Berkeley
  • Can see a concentration of blue dots:  all of San Pablo are blue and red, not feeling good
  • Also had them diagram in different places, where to make a bubble — trouble, some people were inventing relationship
  • Prior had done pilots with undergrads and grads
  • Did some statistical analysis:  test ordinal responses on differences
  • Would expect almost normal, 50% good and bad, actually tilted a little bit towards good in east area — but can see west feels better than east
  • Kahneman’s paper 6 years later explained a lot of this

San Pablo Avenue has bad feelings, Stanford Avenue is feeling better

Going down to Gaskill Street, west side feels good, east side feels bad

It’s quality of the places, not a fault of the person

For intersubjective, do Cronbach reliability test:  remove values and see how the number change

  • Reliability is found to be very high
  • Didn’t want to divide people into cells, tried to put them into cluster — did in about half of a block
  • 3 observations in a cell, about 4000 sq. meters, reliability was very high, 98%
  • At 5 observations, over 90%

Social aspects affecting feeling

  • Tenure (owners, renters)
  • Age
  • Years of residence
  • … all affect feelings
  • Did a logit model on how people make decisions
  • Variable as social, location as street
  • Social only added 5% to accuracy of model — spatial more determinant than social
  • Conclusion:  individual tendency tends to colour feeling, but moves in the same direction — people tend to move together

Then go, to look at space

  • e.g. two houses on Marshall Street

Two views on public library (which is also a museum of African American history)

  • People may respond differently if they know library is also a musem

An intersection, looking 4 different directions

  • People coming to an intersection from a different way would have a different feeling

Sources of feelings:

  • Most important were neighbours and gardens — which are related, since good neighbours keep good gardens
  • Positive and negative feelings are not symmetric
  • Lack of crime doesn’t insure good feelings

First example:  Mitzpeh Ramon ethnographic study

  • Happy with it, but not enough to put into a peer-reviewed journal in the late 1990s
  • Was working on the Boulevard book
  • With Amelia Rosenberg-Weinrub, studied as an ugly place in Israel with varied in culture — she liked the feeling maps, she didn’t have confirmation bias, just used feeling map in ethnography
  • [maybe see “Mapping feeling: An approach to the study of emotional response to the built environment and landscape” | AR Weinreb, Y Rofè | 2013 | Journal of Architectural and Planning Research at http://www.jstor.org/stable/43031085 ]
  • Adjusted instrument, changed the structure
  • Created a map with some clustering — didn’t do statistical analysis (which isn’t what anthropologist do)
  • Did more interaction with people, talking with them as they walked, so could say more about what they felt
  • Found affected more by place by than social aspects
  • Positive areas, e.g. play area
  • Negative areas, ugly building
  • Got published in J. Architectural Planning and Research

Comparison of Neighbourhood Public Open Spaces with L.Arch Inbal Zarchin

[Will stop presentation here]

Now a resurgence of interest, after 2 decades where no one was interest

Interim summary

  • Problem isn’t with measurement of feelings, it doesn’t have to do with how to map centers and extent
  • Hard to quantify
  • Need to rely on judgement:  in double-bind

[Questions]

What did you ask

  • How do you feel?  Very good to very bad
  • Feeling was affected by who was there, as much as with place
  • When ask a lot of people, then biases disappear
  • Statistics know people have individual circumstances, but when ask a lot of people, then they cancel them out

Tough to map patterns.  Have you or students tried to correlate tree, or property levels?

  • No, but others do
  • In urban society, we value nature, because we don’t have so much of it

#pattern-language, #purplsoc-2017

2017/10/20 18:05 Christian Kohls, “Patterns for Creative Space”, Purplsoc

Plenary @chrisimweb #purplsoc Pursuit of Pattern Languages for Societal Change http://www.purplsoc.org/conference2017/

This digest was created in real-time during the meeting,based on the speaker’s presentation(s) and comments from the audience. The content should not be viewed as an official transcript of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. The digest has been made available for purposes of scholarship, posted by David Ing.

Introduction by Wolfgang Stark

  • Went to EuroPLoP, found people playing games

Wolfgang is a professor at T.U. Koln

  • Ph.D. thesis on psychology of patterns
  • President of Hillside Europe

[Christian Kohls]

Purplsoc Christian Kohls

Started using patterns 15 years ago

Talking about architecture and patterns, amongst an audience of architects

In the last year, have created some of these creative spaces

  • Talk will be about the journey

Why create creative spaces at the campus?

  • Motivation:  we are developing a creative society
  • Industrial society
  • Knowledge workers:  main activity is to solve problems

Cocreation:  creating software products with people

  • Center on human needs
  • Will see more collaboration spaces

Goals:

  • Enabling
  • Educating
  • Efficient — not wasting ideas, hearing everyone
  • Exciting so people want to go there

How:

  • Piecemeal growth
  • Passion

Pattern mining:

  • Induction from good practices
  • inductive deductive:  analysis of existing problems
  • Deductive:  pure reason

Software pattern community

  • Inductive empiricism
  • Rule of three

But can also do abductive development

  • Can explain and justify good solutions

Kolhs & Panke 2009, pattern mining as an inductive approach

Collaborative spaces

Places to reflect

Storage space

Also some bad(?) examples

Literature reviews on creativity, creative spaces

(Photographs)

#pattern-language, #purplsoc-2017

2017/10/20 08:40 Nick Seemann, “Pattern languages in community building projects”, Purplsoc

Plenary @nickseemann #purplsoc Pursuit of Pattern Languages for Societal Change http://www.purplsoc.org/conference2017/

This digest was created in real-time during the meeting,based on the speaker’s presentation(s) and comments from the audience. The content should not be viewed as an official transcript of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. The digest has been made available for purposes of scholarship, posted by David Ing.

Introduction by Howard Davis

Known Nick Seemann since 1998, when he came to U. Oregon when he came to study

  • In 1978, at UC Berkeley, Howard was asked to sit in for Chris Alexander when he went on sabbatical
  • Own first teacher on pattern language was Max Jacobson
  • Taught:  pattern language; urban studio; urban studio on urban design
  • Studios included David Week, Ken Costigan — became good friends, went to Papua New Guinea, pattern language based on traditional patterns
  • David went to Sydney

Nick met David in Sydney, then worked with Ken in Papua New Guinea

  • Back to Sydney, David suggested research master’s in U. Oregon
  • Did field work in Nepal, Katmandu, in slums, building a small school
  • Thesis:  Mapping the Mandala
  • Went back to Sydney, started architecture firm, Constructive Dialogue

Nick says when he meets a new person, he has something to learn from them

  • Speaks to idea in architecture, everyone is important, deserves humanity and dignity

[Nick Seemann]

Purplsoc Nick Seemann

Came to Oregon, when Howard was finishing Production of Houses

Applications of patterns in work

Building from Sydney:  1965 Don Gazzard blog post

  • Sydney Wentworth Church, Richard Lafastria
  • Sketch:  when sitting at the top, above the tree canopy, then into building with a nice space
  • Move up, and then in the light space
  • Sad:  the building hasn’t been used in 15 years
  • This year, went up for sale
  • In Sydney, someone will buy it and turn it into private
  • Relic of heritage building, that will become useless

Will give two talks:

  • A new building
  • Fixing up, nursing homes

Patterns:

  • Involving users:  focus on social life
  • Evidence based work
  • Piecemeal growth

Working in Papua New Guinea, worth with Ken Costigan and David Week

  • Working to evolve building tradition
  • 15 years through working a master’s degree
  • How do I use pattern language to understand the culture?
  • Local technique, no power tools
  • 30-foot long post put into building
  • Could have been part of the Alexander book system
  • David travelling down coast of Sydney:  see the glint of shine, light reflecting off a metal roof, can see progress is coming

Came back to Australia, practice with Tim Turner

  • Wanted to do something socially engaged
  • Crisis accommodation, building for aged
  • Never did any real houses
  • Spending all of time working with community organizations

Process

  • Pattern language for nursing homes
  • Always a social research project, e.g. volunteering 3 weeks in a nursing home to understand what’s going on
  • Intersection been social, craft and sustainability

The Caroline Chisholm Centre

  • Western Sydney, an area of financial need, a lot of indigenous in the area
  • Community building set up by Society of Vincent St. Paul
  • Programs for groups, e.g. old people who assaulted police officers who could take course instead of jail
  • Food vouchers for financial support
  • Already ran 15 years, wanted a better building
  • Mapping out on the site
  • Industrial area, building wouldn’t be looking out on a beach, so looking self-contained
  • Spent time, workshop with 30 people

Two social activities to take seriously

  • 1. Main place that people like to socialize is out the front door, having cigarette
  • Entrance of the building was grand
  • 2. At lunchtime everyday, everything stopped, everyone had lunch together

Workshop:  4 difference scenarios

  • Built pattern language

Patterns:

  • A humble, social entrance
  • An oasis as a quiet place of change:  since building had no outlook, a cool spot in the middle of a hot area (2 degrees C to 40 degrees C), yet didn’t want air conditioning
  • Narrow building, verandah access:  breezes blowing through
  • Integration of activities:  no corridors

Not pulling from a catalog of patterns, coming out from the dialogue and keep changing with the conversations

Flexible, small medium large rooms

  • Movement mostly outside the building, with courtyard in the middle
  • Consultation continued over 4 years: going through models, involving in construction
  • Reticulated space, doors slide out
  • Large doors open out to garden
  • Originally included air conditioning system
  • Air taken underground, used to cool rooms, concrete slab would keep room cool

Issues:  some people still felt disenfranchised, 3 or 4 years in, gave time people to discuss

  • Most of the 25 people changed over 4 years

Buildings most satisfying were often smallest

  • Shift from accommodation (giving people a place to sleep)
  • Process to offer of engagement
  • Intake, treatment, sleeping (8 hours), washing and then eating

2014:  shifting more directly to nursing home

  • 190,000 people in Australia living in assisted care
  • Environments are bad
  • Could be frailty, macular degeneration: environments could make those worse
  • Existing building stock is a mess

Dealing with issues, pattern-based

Two big influences:

  • Paul Pholeros, healthhabitat.com , housingforhealth.com — not well known out of Australia
  • Given a task by elders, to stop people from getting sick
  • Doctor, community worker and architect
  • Did research for 10 years, showed a demonstrable improvement in health for places they lived in
  • 8000 homes
  • Looked at health hardware, what was used to deal with issueser
  • e.g. children being washed twice per day:  if houses don’t have running water, no way to wash child in clean water
  • Water from well, into hot water system that won’t fail from salting up, a clean surface to clean up, with a plug (so that people don’t use a newspaper that will clog up)
  • Spend was $7200 to fix houses

Other project was school

  • One room school
  • Patterns used to bring people together
  • Not known for construction skills, they would knock down and rebuild
  • They valued later for stopping fighting, moving forward
  • UnitingCare, Building Design Guide, 32 pattern summary — has been rewritten 3 times (rewrites getting worse)
  • Knowledge was there, but no one was using it
  • Go back a step:  what was important
  • Doing a 100-page book, and then trying to sell it, use it

In aged care, besides disable, the knowledge is there

  • Key Principles for Improving Healthcare Environments for People with Dementia, aci.health.nsw.gov.au written 30 years ago, typewritten
  • 10 ideas
  • 1. Unobrusivley reduce risks
  • 2. Provide a human scale
  • 3. Allow people to see and be seen
  • (a) Reduce to “small households”
  • e.g. 50 people for lunch everyday is going to be intimidating
  • (b) Accessible gardens
  • (c) Improve Orientation

Accessible gardens:  day centre, get people outside, going into a contained space

  • Good visual access
  • A path that leads you out
  • Corridors for moving through rooms
  • Transition zone to allow eyes to adjust

Improve orientation

  • Was little contrast, except going into room, looks institutional
  • Hide clutter
  • Give more of a residential look
  • Hide a door (for a cleaner)
  • Nooks for people to sit in
  • Small changes for client, one corridor at a time

Small households

  • Was large diningroom, locked doors to small balcony
  • A cluster of small spaces
  • Good sight lines
  • Containing different households
  • Took middle of business, converted into service areas
  • Garden space outside
  • Better sight lines

Another project, similar idea

  • Original idea of knock down and rebuild, but 5 years later, it isn’t done
  • Had:  bedrooms with 3 or 4 people in them, now ways out
  • Converted to 2-person bedrooms
  • Set up another living space open to outside

Strategic improvements:

  • Coming back to Paul’s original ideas
  • Making incremental
  • Looking a culture change, working with staff, knowledge of staff

Pieter Bruegel, The Elder Children’s Games

In Australia, looking for few buildings that encourage activities

  • Coming through conversations with clients
  • Evaluation process

School in Nepal, 6 years later

  • Community built 2 more rooms, paved, built more bathrooms
  • Not fighting on beauty, building together as a group

Next step:  How to involve people more fully

[Questions]

When doing incremental projects, useful, allowing people to maintain the facility while using it.  Also improving designs

  • Small projects more likely to happen
  • $7000 projects, so that staff can see it won’t take 4 years
  • The best way to get staff involved
  • Set up an action research approach:  are improvements happening, is going outside important

Working in different client:  inside/outside, heating/cooling.  How to get cooling done?

  • Focused on 12 patterns
  • Challenge in aged care is getting them excited so that they want to go outside
  • In Papua New Guinea, a lot about cooling

#pattern-language, #purplsoc-2017

2017/10/19 17:05 Linda Rising, “Patterns and Morality”, Purplsoc

Plenary @RisingLinda #purplsoc Pursuit of Pattern Languages for Societal Change http://www.purplsoc.org/conference2017/

This digest was created in real-time during the meeting,based on the speaker’s presentation(s) and comments from the audience. The content should not be viewed as an official transcript of the meeting, but only as an interpretation by a single individual. Lapses, grammatical errors, and typing mistakes may not have been corrected. Questions about content should be directed to the originator. The digest has been made available for purposes of scholarship, posted by David Ing.

Introduction by Hajo Neis

  • Univ.-Prof. Hajo Neis, Director of PUARL
  • Message from Christopher Alexander, through
  • First, greetings from the University of Oregon
  • Christopher Alexander is now in a stage of life where it’s difficult to express himself

Purplsoc Hajo Neis

Shifting Patterns: Christopher Alexander und der Eishin campus, just published

  • Published by Park Books
  • Only publication by Christopher Alexander in German language

Introduction of Linda Rising by Peter Baumgartner

  • Independent consultant, living in the United States
  • Ph.D. from Arizona State U., on optic phase design matrix
  • Book on Fearless Change, which was the first book that Peter read on patterns, not coming from the computer science community

[Linda Rising]

Purplsoc Linda Rising

Presentation available on request

Woke up last November, after election in the U.S.

Thought protests were over in the 1970s

  • Marched with 15,000 others in Nashville, a city of only a million
  • Since then, have been in a lot of other protests

Have been looking for patterns on what’s been going on

Alexander said a puzzle:  a pattern is something can be implemented a million different ways without doing it the same way twice

  • Where are the million different ways?
  • What should I do?  How should I implement one of those different ways
  • How can I know?  What is the evidence that it really works?
  • In writing new patterns, not convinced that they’re all in use.

Alexander often references science

  • Would like to see instead some evidence of the science

Twilight Zone episode:  The Monsters are Due on Maple Street

  • They do it by turning people against each other
  • It’s so easy to get them to turn against each other
  • In the episode, a person kills a friend
  • Thought it was interesting, but it couldn’t really happen

Now, neighbour is turning against neighbour

  • Friends turning against each other
  • Asking people:  did you vote for Donald Trump?
  • Tennessee is mostly red state, with Nashville a little blue dot
  • Nobody is listening to anybody

Fearless Change:  when two parties don’t listen to each other, first instinct is to fight

Thinking opponents are missing facts, so all we have to do is provide missing information

We’re not designed to respond to information

  • Reason isn’t a judge that looks at information
  • It’s more like a press secretary
  • Confirmation bias
  • Not proof
  • Then we discount information of others

Cognitive dissonance

Started book as a technical person, didn’t know enough about change

  • Social psychology, influence strategies, evolutionary biology

Between Fearless Change and More Fearless Change was the emergence of behavioral economics

  • Daniel Kahneman, Thinking Fast and Slow
  • Dan Ariely

Now have published Chinese versions of books

The big problem with patterns, having spent 20 years on 2 books, started when she was 55

  • Think we need more evidence
  • We see what we want to see, and then the brain fills in
  • We hate to think about 2 ideas at the same time
  • Science can’t test a million different ways

Christopher Alexander talks about experiments, but don’t think he did many on people

Turned to own pattern language to talk to neighbours, in conflict

  • Stephen Covey says, listen with the intent to understand, not the intent to reply
  • How do we implement this?
  • Where is the science?

Finding research in morality

  • Jonathan Haidt:  The Righteous Mind
  • Joshua Greene:  Moral Tribes

Moral Foundations Theory from Joshua Greeen:

  • Right:  Loyalty, Authority, Sanctity
  • Left:  Care, Fairness

You have to think about values, what’s important for them, not for you

e.g. increase in military spending

  • Message 1:  Take pride in military that protects us from evil — authority, patriotism
  • Message 2:  In the military, the poor and disadvantaged can achieve equal standing — caring

Have been practicising, trying to adopt the values of the other side

  • Haven’t been successful
  • We’re not only wedded to vision, we’re wedded to values

Is there something that I can prove that make you stop believing?  If no, then no point in continuing discussion

[Questions]

Developing a pattern language on commoning.  Doing, acting, together.  Generative processes.  Generating based on people’s reality.  Depends on how we conceptualize science.  Process philosophy, action research.  The way of generating patterns together?

  • Feeling in the pattern community, as have coauthors and group authors.  Reviewers should give honest feedback.  Authors can take feedback or not.
  • May have groupthink.
  • Better than nothing, but may not sufficient.
  • Would like to see testing.

Empirically investigating morality.  Before waveform analysis, colour was thought to be subjective.  Quality of morality?  Investigative methods?

  • First, look around.
  • Behavioural economics and cognitive neuroscience are measuring things that we though were unmeasureable.
  • Attraction to a younger person.  Feeling it?  If you notice and the other person doesn’t, pupils dilate, even if not conscious.

Definition of science.  Patterns should have some evidence.  Science in the normal definition is too strict.  Social phenomenon.  Complex systems, or systems dynamics to understand more.  Need to create a new type of science.

  • Science is a social construct, the best we have right now.
  • Scientists are human, we’re biased.
  • Hard for scientist to give up a belief.
  • Ideal world:  another section in every pattern, for validation or test

Thomas Kuhn, paradigm.  If following dominant theory, then get funding.  If now there are competing facts, it’s not a problem.  Incorporate facts in bigger theories.  More complexity and risk, will have change.  Can’t confirm with contradictory facts.  Wittgenstein:  it’s not the different facts, it’s the interconnection of facts tying things together.  Have to work on an alternative world on a grassroots level.  Who is responsible?  Who gets peer reviews?  Open data.  Can repeat experiment.

  • Daniel Kahneman got a Nobel prize for saying people aren’t rational decision makers.
  • Now conflict between behavioral economics and classical economists.
  • Max Planck:  science moves forward with the death of scientists

Producing 10 to 20 patterns every year.  Believe that I have found solutions that I want to share.  People have to use them.

  • In the science of medicine, bloodletting was practiced for 1000 years
  • Have another talk:  give agile software development a placebo

Adopt or visualize someone else’s point of view.  Similar with elections in France.  Scared, thought the same thing as U.S. would happen.  Definition of empathy?  Is empathy over and done?  Rosenberg non-violent communications and conflict resolution.

  • Rosenberg’s research shows that we don’t naturally do that, it’s learned skill

Possible to understand the position of someone who supports Trump, and still think Trump is an idiot.  Issue with Chris Alexander’s failure to go through all of the science to validate 253 patterns is one thing.  Problem isn’t with Alexander, but with the adulation of Alexander.  There are other approaches.  There are other more scientifically approaches.  Not complete.  But looking across, can see.

  • Having a conversation with neighbours.
  • Coverage increases over time

#pattern-language, #purplsoc-2017